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Articles from ProMED Fusarium Tr4 (Israel); Fusarium head blight (China); Wheat stripe rust (India)

Three articles from ProMED that I seemed to have missed

Source: JammuVirasat [edited]

The yellow rust has been reported from some areas of Jammu district at the international border [with Pakistan], which is considered the grain bowl of Jammu and Kashmir [J&K]. According to news reports, the disease of wheat severely affects the entire Jammu region [which] makes strenuous efforts to manage this disease through farmers' trainings [and] campaigns.

Wheat is the major staple food in India. In recent years, yellow rust has emerged as the major threat to the crop. The pathogen perpetuates through uredospores on volunteer wheat at high altitudes. In India, it survives [in the] Himalayan foothills in J&K, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and western Uttar Pradesh. From there, the spores are blown to lower altitudes and finally reach the plains in the months of December-January [to] cause primary infection.

[Stripe rust (also called yellow rust) of cereals is caused by the fungus _Puccinia striiformis_. The disease affects wheat (_Triticum aestivum_), durum wheat (_T. turgidum_), some barley varieties, triticale (wheat/rye hybrids) and a number of wild grasses. It causes yellow stripes on leaves which leads to loss of photosynthetic ability and plant vigour, as well as stunting of plants. Yield losses of 40 to 100 percent have been reported in wheat.

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Source: Xinhua [edited]
The agricultural department in east China's Anhui Province has sent a warning of a wheat scab epidemic. The department discovered that 4.7 million hectares [about 11.6 million acres] of wheat fields in the province are prone to an outbreak of the fungal disease this year [2019]. Among them, 2 million hectares [about 4.9 million acres] are likely to suffer losses. Wheat scab had been expanding and aggravating over the past years in the province, affecting yield and quality.

Agricultural experts said farmers should seize the current "window period" of the plant's growth to carry out pharmaceutical prevention and control. Wheat is the main grain crop in the province, accounting for 40% of the total grain output.

[Fusarium head blight (FHB; also called ear blight, scab) of small grain cereal crops (wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize) is caused by several fungal species originally classed into the genus _Fusarium_. FHB causes yield losses of up to 45% and reduces the grade of harvested grain. The fungi can also cause foot rot and seedling blight and form a complex of diseases on seeds, seedlings, and adult plants. Current names of the fungi include _Fusarium graminearum_ (synonym _Gibberella zeae_), _Fusarium poae_, _Microdochium nivale_ (synonyms _Fusarium nivale_, _Monographella nivalis_), and _Microdochium majus_. The pathogens are favoured by humid conditions.

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Source: European Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) Reporting Service 03/2019/059 [edited]
As reported in EPPO RS 2018/106, _Fusarium oxysporum_ f. sp. _cubense_ tropical race 4 was first found in Israel in 2016 at 2 separate locations. Ongoing intensive surveillance operations have discovered a further outbreak at a number of sites in close proximity to one of these locations (in the eastern/southern [Sea of Galilee] area).

The infected sites have been confined and placed under strict supervision by the NPPO [National Plant Protection Organisation]. Infected banana mats, as well as a buffer of 5 mats radius, have been immediately fenced off and all plants destroyed in-situ. All plantations with infected sites have also been fenced off, access restricted and entry allowed only under strict quarantine conditions. Water ditches have been dug around the fenced areas to prevent spread of spores in rain water.

[Panama disease of banana (PD, also called fungal or fusarium wilt) is caused by the soil borne fungus _Fusarium oxysporum_ f. sp. _cubense_. Symptoms include yellowing, wilting and streaking of pseudostem; affected plants die rapidly. The pathogen is spread by infected planting material, mechanical means (including human and insect activities), soil and water.

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