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2018-04-04T14:00:00.0000000Z
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PAECILOMYCES ROT, APPLE - USA: (NEW YORK), NEW DISEASE

A ProMED-mail post
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International Society for Infectious Diseases
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Date: Mon 2 Apr 2018
Source: WHCU News Talk Radio [edited]
<http://whcuradio.com/news/ 025520-apple-mold-confounds/>

A mold found in more than a 3rd of the soil samples from New York
State apple orchards is causing a new disease, spoiling apples, even
after heat pasteurization. The state is the top producer of processed
apple products and they all rely on pasteurization.

Cornell's Kathie Hodge and Megan Biango-Daniels investigated the
origins of a newly discovered apple disease called Paecilomyces Rot,
caused by the common fungus found in 34 per cent of state orchards.
Previously, scientists believed the fungus was coming from soil
contamination, but Hodge and Biango-Daniels believe other infected
apples are the primary source.

Since this new apple disease appears similar in appearance to others,
the scientists suggest apple producers isolate any of the fruit with
wounds or bruising in order to avoid the spread of Paecilomyces Rot.
--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The fungus causing this new disease has been identified as
_Byssochlamys lagunculariae_ (previously _Paecilomyces niveus_; see
source link below). The external fruit rot develops mainly in storage
after harvest and symptoms appear to be similar to fruit rots due to
other fungi. Susceptibility may vary somewhat between apple cultivars.
The fungus survives in orchard soils and on decaying plant material.

The significance of this report is stated as (1) the production of a
mycotoxin, and (2) the fungus remaining infectious after commercial
pasteurisation. Spores are reported to be tolerant of temperatures of
up to 90 degrees Celsius [194 F] and are suspected to be the cause of
spoilage of canned products, leading to severe economic losses for the
affected apple producers. This pathogen also appears to facilitate
secondary infections by other fungi.

Other species in the genus _Byssochlamys_ are also known to produce
mycotoxins and form heat resistant ascospores. They have been reported
from soils in many areas and can cause problems, for example, in
grapevine and tomato products.

Maps
USA:
<http://www.mapsofworld.com/ usa/>
Individual states via:
<http://www.mapsofworld.com/ usa/states/>

Pictures
Apple with paecilomyces rot:
<http://news.cornell.edu/ sites/default/files/styles/ breakout/public/2018-03/0329_ apple.jpg>
_B. lagunculariae_, microscopy:
<https://www.researchgate.net/ profile/Jos_Houbraken/ publication/41669957/figure/ fig4/AS:202806704250901@ 1425364295000/Byssochlamys- lagunculariae-a-d- Conidiophores-e-conidia-f- asci-and-ascospores-Bys.png>

Links
Additional news story and source study (accepted for publication):
<http://news.cornell.edu/ stories/2018/03/new-apple- disease-spoils-even-
pasteurized-foods
> (thanks to G. Jackson, Pestnet) and
<https://apsjournals.apsnet. org/doi/10.1094/PDIS-12-17- 1896-RE>
Information on genus _Byssochlamys_ and associated diseases:
<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pmc/articles/PMC243237/>,
<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pmc/articles/PMC2789542/> and via
<https://www.sciencedirect. com/topics/agricultural-and- biological-sciences/ byssochlamys>
_B. lagunculariae_ taxonomy and synonyms:
<http://www.speciesfungorum. org/GSD/GSDspecies.asp? RecordID=512557>
and
<http://www.speciesfungorum. org/Names/SynSpecies.asp? RecordID=512557>.
- Mod.DHA]

[See Also:
2017
----
Crown & root rot, apple - USA: (eastern)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20170821.5263568
2012
----
Fungal diseases, apple - USA: (NY, MI)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20120906.1282861
2005
----
Canker and twig dieback, apple, pear - USA (WA)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20051015.3001]
................................ ...................sb/dha/ec/ dk
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USA
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PAECILOMYCES_ROT

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