Worldwide distribution. On Erythrina species. There are more than 100 species worldwide in tropical and sub-tropical countries, and they are used as ornamentals, living fences, and also as shade trees. An important pest.
Eggs are laid in the shoots, and larvae cause leaves to deform and fall; repeated attacks cause dieback and tree death. Seedlings attacked, leading to species loss.
Spread occurs by flight on the wind and, perhaps, on leaves on boats and planes.
Natural enemies: parasitoid wasp collected in Africa, introduced and found effective in Hawaii.
Cultural control: none recommended..
Chemical control: none recommended, except imidacloprid injection of especially valuable trees. [Note, in some countries, control is controversial: Erythrina is the food of fruit piercing moth larvae, in others it is a valuable native tree.]