Worldwide distribution. Rice, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, related grasses. Important pest, often with other storage insects.
Damage starts at milky stage in field, continuing to final storage.
Eggs laid into grains; larvae bore into grain, feed and, later, make "windows" for adult (moth) emergence. Adults are 6 mm long, grey, pale or yellowish-brown, with fringed wings.
Spread as adults on the wing (strong flyers), or as larvae inside grain.
Natural enemies: several predators and egg parasitoids (Trichogramma), but effectiveness uncertain.
Cultural control: dry grain properly (12%); keep storage rooms and areas clean; spray bins, use new sacks; monitor lose grain in bins (top layers), and grain still on cobs (throughout); resistant varieties.
Chemical control: consult full fact sheet; always check whether the product is for treating equipment, bins and buildings or for treating grain for human use and animal feed. READ THE INSTRUCTIONS.