Worldwide distribution. A fungus causes early leaf death, starting from tips and margins. Low leaf number causes 35-50% loss of fruit yield. Spores spread in wind-blown rain.
Cultural control: plant in soils with good drainage, exposed to the sun and orientated to the wind so leaves dry quickly; 2.5 m spacing; weed; prune leaves when >50% infected; prune suckers, leaving 3-4 plants/matt; mulch; collect and remove infected leaves at harvest; for resistant (FHIA) varieties, contact SPC CePaCT.
Chemical control: protectants – copper, mancozeb, chlorothalonil, misting oil. Systemics – triazoles, strobilurins, alternating with protectants.