Worldwide distribution. On over 400 species in 28 families (potato, legume, cucumber, cabbage and daisy), on vegetables and ornamentals. An important pest.
Eggs laid beneath leaf surface; larvae hatch and mine leaves, which dry up and fall early; loss of leaves may cause sunburn. Damage also done by female using ovipositors to feed on sap (both sexes feed on nectar).
Natural enemies: parasitoid wasps; insecticides use for other pests kill them and lead to leafminer outbreaks.
Cultural control: monitor using yellow sticky traps above crops; avoid water stress; weed.
Chemical control: Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis), spinosad, abamectin, cyromazine; resistance to pyrethroids exists.