Widespread. Asia, Africa, North, South, Central America, Europe, Oceania. In Australia, Fiji.
Important disease of rice, causing regular epidemics. Wild grasses are hosts.
Bacteria enter natural openings and wounds, moving in water conducting tissues, causing streaks with wavy margins – yellowish-white (seedlings), pale yellow (older plants) - joining together, resulting in wilts, drying and death. Droplets ooze from streaks leaving crusts. Spread with irrigation water, wind and rain, possibly seed. Survival in seed, and weeds.
Biosecurity: import only bacteria-free certified seed, and subject to closed quarantine.
Cultural control: use certified seed, or select seed from healthy plants; do not clip seedling leaves; do not apply excessive N; ensure good drainage (flooding allows infection); weed (especially Leersia species); plough stubble after harvest; fallow fields to destroy bacteria; use resistant varieties - available in Africa and Asia.