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International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: November 2017
Source: Journal of Plant Pathology [edited]
< jpp/index.php/jpp/article/ view/3969>

[ref: A Hernandez-Morales et al. First report of _Pantoea stewartii_
subsp. _stewartii_ causing jackfruit bronzing disease in Mexico. J
Plant Path. 2017; 99(3): DOI: 10.4454/jpp.v99i3.3969]
------------------------------ ------------------------------ --------
"Jackfruit bronzing", an emerging disease caused by the bacterium
_Pantoea stewartii_, had only been reported in the Philippines and
Malaysia [ProMED-mail post 20170905.5294905]. It is characterized by
yellow-orange to reddish discoloration of affected pulps and rags.

In autumn 2016, the disease was suspected in major growing areas in
Mexico, where jackfruits with bronzing were observed and collected.
Ten bacterial isolates with characteristics particular to _Pantoea_
spp. were obtained. The cpsD and hrpS genes obtained  with primers
specific to _Pantoea stewartii_ showed 98-99 per cent similarity to
reference strains of subsp. _stewartii_. Sequence analysis of a 16S
rDNA region showed that our JM-5´ bacterial isolate was 99 per cent
identical to _P. stewartii_ subsp. _stewartii_.

Pathogenicity tests showed characteristic symptoms of fruit bronzing
in jackfruits 14 days post inoculation with a bacterial suspension. No
symptoms were observed in control fruits inoculated with sterile
water. Bacteria re-isolated from inoculated jackfruits were identical
to the original isolate.

Based on morphological, biochemical, physiological, pathogenicity and
molecular analyses, we conclude that Mexican bacterial isolates from
jackfruit can be identified as _P. stewartii_ subsp. _stewartii_. This
is the first record of jackfruit bronzing disease in Mexico.
communicated by:
IBIS (International Biosecurity Intelligence System)

[The fruits of the jackfruit tree (_Artocarpus heterophyllus_) can
weigh up to 60 kg with almost 1 m in length and are amongst the
largest tree fruits known. Depending on the level of sweetness of
different varieties, they are eaten as fresh or preserved fruit, or as
vegetable. The crop is grown widely in tropical and subtropical

Fruit bronzing is considered an emerging disease of jackfruit in
southern Asia. _Pantoea stewartii_ subsp. _stewartii_. (Pss,
previously _Erwinia stewartii_) has only recently been identified as
the cause of this disease in the Philippines (see links below) and
subsequently also in Malaysia (ProMED-mail post 20170905.5294905).

Pss is known as the cause of Stewart's bacterial wilt of maize (an
important disease in parts of the USA and Europe) that is transmitted
primarily by and overwinters in the corn flea beetle (_Chaetocnema
pulicaria_). Hence, a similar association with an insect vector may be
suspected for Pss bronzing of jackfruit, but further work is needed on
the epidemiology  of this disease. The report above is the first
record of jackfruit bronzing from the Americas and generally from
outside of Asia.

Pss also causes a leaf blight of rice and is considered an emerging
pathogen of that crop (as is _P. ananatis_, ProMED-mail post 20170504.5012251).

The genus _Pantoea_ belongs to the family of _Enterobacteriaceae_,
which also comprises genera pathogenic to animals or humans. However,
the majority of its members are plant-associated. Species in the genus
can cause diseases on a number of crops, such as leaf blights of
cereals (_P. agglomerans_), pink disease of pineapple (_P. citrea_),
brown stalk rot of maize (_P. ananatis_ and a novel _Pantoea_
species), center rot of onion (_P. ananatis_). The effects of
different bacterial strains on hosts can vary dramatically. The
bacteria are generally transmitted by insect vectors, plant material,
and infected seed, making them a quarantine risk.

Mexico (with states):
< maps/americas/mexico_pol97.jpg >
Americas, overview:
< america-map.html/download- free-north-america-maps-world- geography-blank-in-i-am-map-2>

Bronzing and rot of jackfruit:
< content/uploads/2012/09/plate- 1.jpg>,
< content/uploads/2012/09/plate- 2.jpg> and
< content/uploads/2012/09/plate- 3.jpg>
_P. stewartii_ photo galleries:
< ERWIST/photos> and via
< browse/taxthumb.cfm?class=404>

Description of jackfruit bronzing:
_P. stewartii_ as cause of jackfruit fruit bronzing:
< search/ PH2014000402>
(Philippines) and
<http://apsjournals.apsnet. org/doi/full/10.1094/PDIS-11- 16-1689-PDN>
Information on _P. stewartii_:
< ERWIST> and
< KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx? dsid=21939>
Description of genus _Pantoea_:
< Enterobacteria/Pantoea.html>
Information on _Pantoea_ species and subspecies:
< pantoea.html> and
< pmc/articles/PMC2643697/>
Genus _Pantoea_ taxonomy and species:
< taxonomy/53335>
 - Mod.DHA

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
< p/14>.]

[See Also:
Pantoea bronzing, jackfruit - Malaysia: 1st rep (PH) 20170905.5294905
Pantoea leaf blight, rice - Togo, Benin: 1st reps 20170504.5012251
Pantoea, papaya - Australia: new subspecies (WA) 20160104.3911037
Stewart's wilt, maize - Argentina: 1st rep (CB) 20130603.1752215
P. agglomerans, cereals - Mexico: 1st rep 20080111.0140]
.............................. ...................dha/msp/sh
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