Worldwide distribution. On bele bele (aibika, sliperi kabis, island cabbage, Abelmoschus manihot), tomato (see Fact Sheet no. 157), and also attacks capsicum, citrus, papaya, passionfruit (see Fact Sheet no. 154) and pineapple. A water mould, an oomycete, not a fungus. The wilt is worse in waterlogged soils.
Spread is in rain splash, ground water, soil on machinery and shoes; perhaps, soil on cuttings, and the horticultural trade.
Survival is by thick-walled spores. Other types of spores infect and rot the roots, causing plants to wilt.
Cultural control: plant on ridges and make ditches; remove wilted plants with soil around the roots; avoid land planted previously with e.g., papaya, passionfruit, pineapple, okra; avoid taking cutting from wilted plants; 4-year crop rotations.