Worldwide distribution. In wet tropics and sub-tropics. On Chinese cabbage, and many other plants, e.g., head cabbage (slimy brown soft rots), capsicum, carrot, celery, cucumber, lettuce (see Fact Sheet no. 289), and potato (see Fact Sheet no. 296). An important bacterial disease.
Infection occurs through wounds made by insects, at transplanting or when weeding. Plants collapse, and bacteria enter the soil and are spread by rain splash.
Cultural control: avoid soil with history of disease; use 1-year crop rotation, or allow last crop to decompose before replanting; use raised beds to improve drainage; space plants widely allowing wind to dry leaves; mulch to prevent rain splash; weed with care; remove plants with early sign of disease; collect and burn trash after harvest.