Worldwide distribution. Four races, and two strains. Tropical race 4 (TR4), spreading worldwide, is a major threat. TR4, first detected in Asia in the 1990s, now in Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, China and northern Australia. Outbreaks were recently in Mozambique (2013), Jordan (2014), and Pakistan, Lebanon and Queensland, Australia (2015).
A soil-borne fungus, affecting bananas, plantains, and Heliconia. Fusarium enters the roots, blocks water flow, and leaves yellow, dry and wilt. Internally, red rings occur.
Biosecurity: TR4 is present in northern Australia; the outbreak in Queensland is under Queensland Government control.
Spread is root-to-root, run-off water, in soil and suckers for planting.
Cultural control: certified plants or suckers only from disease-free areas; clean tools, machinery, shoes; leave infected plant to die, or use herbicide to hasten, then burn in place; fence affected area, and divert run-off rainwater. Check for resistant (FHIA) varieties.