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2022-06-11T01:59:00.0000000Z
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TOMATO BROWN RUGOSE FRUIT VIRUS - UK: REOCCURRENCE

ProMED

Source: European Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) Reporting Service 05/2022/096 [summ. Mod.DHA, edited]
https://gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-7327

In the United Kingdom, _Tomato brown rugose fruit virus_ (_Tobamovirus_, ToBRFV - EPPO A2 List) was declared eradicated in December 2021 (EPPO RS 2022/018). In May 2022, a new outbreak was confirmed in a tomato production site in the west midlands, which is the same region where the 1st infection in the country had been detected [ProMED post 20190722.6580891]. Eradication measures are being applied.
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Communicated by:
ProMED

[_Tomato brown rugose fruit virus_ (ToBRFV) was recently identified as a new member of the genus _Tobamovirus_ (type member _Tobacco mosaic virus_, TMV) in Jordan and soon after in Israel (see links below). Since then, it has also been reported from a number of other countries in Europe and the Mediterranean region, as well as from North America and China. It was shown to also affect capsicum and has been detected in both plants and seeds of both crops. ToBRFV symptoms on tomato vary depending on host cultivar but may include chlorosis, mottling, mosaic, and crinkling (rugosis) on leaves; necrotic spots on petioles and calyces; yellowish mottling, brown spots, rugosis on fruit to make them unmarketable. On capsicum, leaf symptoms are similar; fruits may be deformed with yellow mottling or green stripes. Almost 100% incidence was reported for some outbreaks in tomato but not every fruit on an infected plant may show symptoms.

ToBRFV (like many tobamoviruses) is seed transmitted and can also be spread by mechanical means, contaminated equipment, as well as with plant, or other materials. It is very stable and can remain infectious for months outside a host. Recently, bumblebees which are used widely as commercial pollinators in glasshouse tomato production, have been shown to be effective vectors of ToBRFV (see link below). Volunteer crop plants and solanaceous weed species are likely pathogen reservoirs. The Tm-22 resistance gene used in some tomato cultivars to protect from other tobamoviruses (such as _Tomato mosaic virus_) does not appear to be effective against ToBRFV. Disease management relies mainly on exclusion but may include phytosanitation (disinfecting tools, removing crop debris) and control of virus reservoirs. Use of certified clean seeds or crop transplants is crucial. Research on possible seed treatments to eliminate the virus is being carried out (see link below). Tomato seeds are traded widely and are known to pose a risk of spreading viruses and other pathogens internationally (for example, ProMED post 20140122.2222560).

Coinfection of ToBRFV with _Pepino mosaic virus_ (genus _Potexvirus_) and _Tomato spotted wilt virus_ (genus _Orthotospovirus_) have been found in tomato (ProMED posts 20191029.6751082, 20200507.7307615). It is thought that the respective symptoms may have been due to either virus or synergism. Further research is needed to clarify a potential role of ToBRFV in coinfections and to determine whether its presence in coinfections may have led to earlier cases of misdiagnosis and delayed identification of this new virus.

"Eradication" of pathogens or diseases has hardly ever been successful in the past and should never be relied on as a tool for disease management. Proof of absence of a pathogen is principally and practically impossible because it would require that each and every known or potential host, symptomatic or not, as well as all known and potential vectors or pathogen reservoirs, are tested with a method that has a 100% rate of reliability. Furthermore, additional pathogen re-introductions from outside the treated area would still be possible.

Maps
UK:
https://www.worldometers.info/img/maps/unitedkingdom_physical_map.gif and
https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8703789,40
UK regions & counties:
https://tinyurl.com/ml5ggkx

Pictures
ToBRFV on tomato:
https://gd.eppo.int/media/data/taxon/T/TOBRFV/pics/1024x0/4137.jpg,
https://gd.eppo.int/media/data/taxon/T/TOBRFV/pics/1024x0/4138.jpg, and
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321639141/figure/fig2/AS:569722670247937@1512843877331/Tomato-brown-rugose-fruit-virus-ToBRFV-infected-tomato-Solanum-lycopersicum-plants.png
ToBRFV symptoms on capsicum:
https://www.naktuinbouw.nl/sites/default/files/news/20100623_M_0275.jpg and
https://agriculture.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/image/0009/555759/TOBRFV_figure-5.jpg

Links
Information and characterisation of ToBRFV:
https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/TOBRFV (with distribution & host list),
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-015-2677-7 (Jordan),
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170429 (Israel), and via
https://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/Tomato-brown-rugose-fruit-virus/3579397
ToBRFV spread by pollinators:
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210871
Tomato resistance breeding:
https://www.hortidaily.com/article/9265808/we-can-eradicate-tobrfv-from-the-tomato-industry-with-our-newly-found-resistance/ and
https://www.hortidaily.com/article/9272889/commercial-tomato-variety-with-tobrfv-resistance-to-be-offered-in-early-2021/
ToBRFV seed treatment:
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-020-02151-1
International spread of tobamoviruses by seeds (review):
https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.70244
Virus taxonomy via:
https://talk.ictvonline.org/taxonomy/
EPPO A2 quarantine list:
https://www.eppo.int/ACTIVITIES/plant_quarantine/A2_list
- Mod.DHA]

Tomato
Tomato_brown_regose_fruuit_virus

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