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2022-08-10T09:27:00.0000000Z
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FIREBLIGHT, POME FRUIT - GERMANY: (BAVARIA) ALERT

ProMED
http://www.promedmail.org

Source: FreshPlaza [in German, trans. & summ. Mod.DHA, edited]
https://www.freshplaza.de/article/9448498/zahlreiche-feuerbrand-faelle-2022-in-bayern/

Numerous fireblight cases are being reported from the northern, southern, and eastern regions of Bavaria. Growers and stakeholders are requested to monitor their pome fruit trees. The disease is notifiable and only early detection can prevent its spread. Quince has proven particularly susceptible, which is partly due to its late flowering.

Although the disease is now present in almost all areas of Bavaria, it is still important for plant protection advisors to have an overview of the current situation in individual regions. Therefore, the Bavarian Plant Protection Service urgently requests that suspected cases be reported -- either to the responsible district services or to the Bavarian State Institute for Agriculture.
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Communicated by:
ProMED
[Fireblight is caused by the bacterium _Erwinia amylovora_ and is considered the most destructive disease of pome fruit trees worldwide. Many varieties of pear, quince, and apple are susceptible, although the level of susceptibility may vary with cultivars. Only members of the Rosaceae are affected, mainly the sub-family Maloideae (synonym Pomoideae), but also many cultivated rose and bramble varieties. The known host range covers more than 140 species from 40 genera. Many ornamental and wild species serve as pathogen reservoirs for crop infections. The pathogen is included in the A2 quarantine list of the European Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO).

The name of the disease is derived from the symptoms of blackening of the leaves as if they were scorched by fire. Affected shoots bend, forming black hooks. Some fruits may show lesions. Cankers appear on branches and trunks, and trees invariably die. The bacteria enter the host plant through wounds and are highly infectious. They are spread by insect activity (including pollinators), wind, water (rain, irrigation), mechanical means (tools, orchard workers), and with plant material (including budwood).

The bacteria overwinter almost exclusively in cankers on limbs infected during the previous season and, consequently, the amount of inoculum and thus the risk of outbreaks are increased following years with high fireblight levels. Phytosanitation and monitoring are used to attempt exclusion of fireblight from individual orchards. Disease management may include cultural measures (such as removal of pathogen reservoirs) and bactericidal sprays. Certain cultivar/rootstock combinations may provide some protection. Currently, the most effective control is application of streptomycin during flowering, but the use of antibiotics in agriculture is controversial and carries serious risks (see also ProMED posts 20200629.7519826 and 20190320.6377319, and PRO/AMR post 20200625.7503355).

Importation of plant material including fruit (shipments may also contain contaminated leaf or twig fragments) from areas with endemic fireblight poses a considerable quarantine risk. The pathogen is considered a major biosecurity risk in areas where it does not yet occur. A continued spread of _E. amylovora_ to new areas and the emergence of new streptomycin-resistant strains are a major concern to pome fruit industries worldwide.

Maps
Germany:
https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8704949,3744 and
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/europe/germany.jpg (with states)
Europe, overview:
http://www.edinphoto.org.uk/0_MAPS/0_map_europe_political_2001_enlarged.jpg

Pictures
Fireblight on apple:
http://www.nfs.unl.edu/graphics/ForestHealth/fireblight.jpg and
https://c8.alamy.com/comp/KFF1CM/bacterial-scorch-or-fire-blight-on-apple-tree-KFF1CM.jpg
Fireblight on pear:
https://www.garden.eco/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/fire-blight-pear-400x266.jpg and
https://pnwhandbooks.org/sites/pnwhandbooks/files/plant/images/pear-pyrus-spp-fire-blight/fireblightpearsugarp6180005.jpg
Overwintering stem cankers:
https://ohioline.osu.edu/sites/ohioline/files/imce/Plant_Pathology/PLPATH-FRU-22-fire-blight-cankers-apple-branch.jpg and
https://blogs.cornell.edu/acimoviclab/files/2016/08/20160613_125732-259878t-e1471452255348-576x1024.jpg (with bacterial ooze)

Links
Fireblight information:
https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/ERWIAM,
http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/21908,
https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/lessons/prokaryotes/pages/fireblight.aspx,
https://www.rhs.org.uk/Advice/profile?PID=160 and via
http://forestry.about.com/od/forestdiseases/p/fireblight.htm
Fireblight disease cycle:
http://extension.colostate.edu/docs/pubs/garden/gardimg/02907F1.GIF
_E. amylovora_ taxonomy:
http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/552
EPPO A2 quarantine list:
https://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/listA2.htm
Bavarian State Institute for Agriculture:
https://www.lfl.bayern.de/index.php (in German)
- Mod.DHA]

Erwinia_amylovora
Germany
Fireblight

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