Worldwide distribution. On bele (aibika, island cabbage or sliperi kabis, Abelmoschus manihot), ornamental Hibiscus, cotton, okra, and some weeds. An important pest.
Eggs laid singly or in groups on underside of leaves. At first, larvae feed together, later alone in leaf rolls, causing leaves to curl, droop down and fall.
Cultural control: plant away from infested crops; pinch and squash rolled leaves, if number are low; prune rolled leaves; after last harvest, collect and burn debris.
Chemical control: PDPs (with soap): chilli, derris, pyrethrum, or neem; use biopesticides, e.g., Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis), or spinosad, but best to spray young larvae; use synthetic pyrethroids, but more likely to kill natural enemies.