Narrow distribution. Not in Oceania. A scale of coconut, banana, mangosteen, and ornamentals. Since 2009, a serious outbreak in the Philippines.
Sucking causes leaves to yellow, wilt and dry out, nuts have less 'meat' and 'milk' is sour. Heavy infestations kill seedlings and young palms.
Eggs in crescents under the cover or 'armour'; 'crawlers' (nymphs) hatch and disperse, settle, moult; females produce yellow to brown transparent armour, up to 3 mm across. Males have wings, but short-lived.
Spread by crawlers walking, or carried by wind, vehicles, animals, birds, on clothing, and trade in plants.
Natural enemies: research into predators and parasitic wasps continues.
IPM recommendations (Philippines): leaf pruning, insecticide trunk injections, and canopy sprays; biocontrol agents (e.g., a Comperiella species), and fertilizer to hasten recovery. [The Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority (of Philippines) has given approval for growers to use a vegetable oil.]