Worldwide distribution. On food legume, e.g., cowpea, French and mung beans. Pod numbers and seeds reduced on susceptible varieties.
Reddish-brown fungal spots, up to 15 mm diameter, circular to angular, merging, often with a yellow halo. Leaves fall early.
Spread by spores blown in wind, and splashed in rain. Survival is in debris left after harvest, and on alternative hosts.
Cultural control: certified seed or seed with plant debris removed; interplant e.g., cowpea with maize or sorghum; remove volunteers; plant away from diseased crops; collect and destroy debris after harvest; resistant varieties.
Chemical control: use mancozeb after flowering and when pods start to develop. Use 2-3 sprays per crop.