Worldwide distribution. In tropics and sub-tropics. On more than 200 hosts in more than 30 plant families. Several races. Race 1 infects eggplant, capsicum, chilli, potato, tomato and tobacco, and other families. An important disease.
High temperature and rain favours disease. Bacteria block the water-conducting tubes causing a wilt.
Place cut stem in water to see 'streaming'.
Cultural control: avoid infested land; use 4-year rotation, with maize, soybean, brassicas, rice; plant on ridges/raised beds to improve drainage; remove wilted plants immediately; remove soil from shoes, machinery, and tools; graft tomato onto relatively bacterial wilt-resistant eggplant; use resistant varieties.