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2024-04-30T03:12:00.0000000Z
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TOMATO FRUIT BLOTCH VIRUS - SPAIN: EPIDEMIOLOGY

ProMED

Source: Phytoma [in Spanish, machine trans., summ. Mod.DHA, edited]
https://www.phytoma.com/noticias/noticias-de-actualidad/tofbv-otra-amenaza-en-expansion-para-el-cultivo-del-tomate

ToBFV is now present in the main tomato-producing areas of Spain. Its presence in the country dates back to at least 2010. Research at the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV) has now confirmed that it is not transmitted mechanically. The virus also does not remain infective in remains of infected plants buried in the soil. New crops, therefore, cannot get infected via soil contaminated with debris of earlier crops.

It has also been proven that some common weeds in the genera _Chenopodium_, _Malva_, and _Sonchus_ are hosts of the virus and may play an important role in its epidemiology. A correlation has been observed between ToBFV infection and tomato russet mite (_Aculops lycopersici_), suggesting a potential role in the transmission of the virus [see also ProMED post 20240129.8714522].
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Communicated by:
ProMED

[After _Tomato fruit blotch virus_ (ToFBV, genus _Blunervirus_; new binomial name _Blunervirus solani_) was first identified in tomatoes with uneven blotchy fruit ripening and dimpling grown in open field cultivation in Italy, the complete genome of the virus was sequenced and characterised as quadripartite, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA.

Highest sequence identities were found with _Tea plant necrotic ring blotch virus_ and _Blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus_ of genus _Blunervirus_ (family Kitaviridae). ToFBV was ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 2021 as a third member of this new genus.

Coinfections with other tomato viruses were found in some symptomatic tissues (see links below). In coinfections (e.g., with _Tomato brown rugose fruit virus_, ProMED post 20240124.8714440), respective symptoms may be due to either virus or synergism. Clear proof of any symptoms being due specifically to ToFBV (Koch`s postulates) is still required. ToFBV sequences have also been reported in potato, but further confirmation of potato as a potential host is needed (ProMED post 20240129.8714522 and link below).

ToFBV has currently been recorded in around 10 countries worldwide, with more than 10 genomic sequence variants available. It has been added to the Alert List of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) and is considered an emerging virus in the region.

Pictures
ToFBV symptoms:
https://cdn.nieuweoogst.nu/public/image/960x431/157391.jpg and
https://www.freshplaza.com/remote/https/agfstorage.blob.core.windows.net/misc/FP_it/2024/01/22/WALt001.jpg

Links
Information on ToFBV:
https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/TOFBV0 and
https://gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-7766
Previous reports and characterisation of ToFBV:
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04760-x,
https://doi.org/10.1002/ndr2.12219 and
https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-21-1392-PDN
ToFBV taxonomy:
https://ictv.global/taxonomy/taxondetails?taxnode_id=202109259 and
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=2762435&lvl=3&lin=f
Description & information for genus _Blunervirus_:
https://viralzone.expasy.org/8021,
https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/1BLUVG,
https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.561092 and
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=2022856
Virus taxonomy via:
https://ictv.global/taxonomy
EPPO alert list:
https://www.eppo.int/ACTIVITIES/plant_quarantine/alert_list
- Mod.DHA

Tomato
Fruit_blotch_virus

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