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2018-05-29T04:00:00.0000000Z
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TUNGRO DISEASE, RICE - PHILIPPINES: (CEBU)

A ProMED-mail post
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Date: Fri 25 May 2018
Source: Cebu Daily News [edited]
<http://cebudailynews. inquirer.net/176817/tungro- destroys-rice-fields-asturias>
Asturias [province of Cebu] Mayor Jose Antonio Pintor said that
ricefields have been infected by Rice Tungro Disease (RTD) [in the
area] . "We have to declare it under state of calamity so we could
pull out their harvest."
Municipal Agriculturist Jade Mesias said there is already an outbreak
of the disease. "The virus really kills the plant." He said 78 per
cent of the total rice producing area in Barangay [municipality]
Lunas, or 33 of the total 43 hectares are severely damaged. While 100
per cent of the rice fields in Barangay Bago covering 21 hectares are
infected by  RTD.
There are at least 66 farmers affected by the loss of their crops.
They are now in need of food as their crops have been destroyed.
[Authorities] released calamity funds to assist the farmers and to
treat the rice fields. Pintor said he was assured that the provincial
government would also extend assistance if the town's calamity funds
will not be enough.
[Byline: Jessa Mae O. Sotto]
--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>
[Tungro is one of the most damaging rice diseases in South East Asia.
Yield losses of up to 100 per cent have been reported, and the disease
is spreading in the region. It is a co-infection involving _Rice
tungro bacilliform virus_ (RTBV; type species and currently only
member of genus _Tungrovirus_, family Caulimoviridae) and _Rice tungro
spherical virus_ (RTSV; type species of genus _Waikavirus_, family
Secoviridae). More than one genotype of each virus may exist in the
same plant.
Symptoms include leaf discolouration, stunting, reduced tillering and
reduced grain production. Losses are highest for infections early in
the growth cycle. Tungro is transmitted by several leafhoppers, but
the most efficient vector is the green leafhopper _Nephotettix
virescens_. RTBV cannot be transmitted unless RTSV is present.
Infectious vector insects can spread the viruses over long distances.
The disease is not seed transmitted.
Disease management includes vector control (on both crops and adjacent
vegetation), cultural practices, as well as use of rice varieties
resistant to the vectors and/or the viruses. However, vector
adaptation on leafhopper resistant varieties has been a problem. The
presence of multiple viral genotypes in a single location suggests an
unstable virus population posing a challenge to achieving durable crop
resistance.
Maps
Philippines:
<http://ontheworldmap.com/ philippines/map-of- philippines-with-cities-and- towns.jpg>
Philippine provinces and regions:
<http://tinyurl.com/z4y3p5v>
Cebu, location of Asturias region:
<https://www.zamboanga.com/z/ images/thumb/c/c9/Asturias_ cebu_.png/300px-Asturias_cebu_ .png>

Pictures
<Tungro symptoms on rice plants:
<http://www.knowledgebank. irri..org/images/stories/ tungro-plant.jpg>,
<https://3.bp.blogspot.com/- RGwvfczwQjc/VwCEFWOxsTI/ AAAAAAAACXc/ YgqFBKZgtVIDhrtyBLKVMy- 7ckhOdxnCA/s1600/100_5669.JPG> ,
<https://s3.amazonaws.com/ user-media.venngage.com/ 761053- 6375940e21b242f0b195167f7bf811 cc.jpg>,
<http://www.cpsskerala.in/OPC/ images/crops/Rice/Disease/76. jpg> and
<http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/ sites/default/files/6_5.bmp>
Tungro-affected rice field:
<http://www.knowledgebank. irri.org/images/stories/ tungro-field.jpg>,
<http://ricehopper.files. wordpress.com/2008/12/tungro- in-field2.gif>
and
<http://3.bp.blogspot.com/- K5WhnV6VK_Y/VL3Jm9dNZ4I/ AAAAAAAAApc/mNbnpMAVILM/s1600/ tungro1edit.jpg>
Tungro viruses, electron microscopy:
<http://bbpadi.litbang. pertanian.go.id/images/info- teknologi/Pemanfaatan- Teknologi-Molekuler-dalam- Deteksi-Penyakit-Tungro.png>
Tungro vector green leafhopper:
<https://s3.amazonaws.com/ user-media.venngage.com/ 761053- cf9ae350d466b966c37b3a055d2ec0 32.jpg>,
<http://bali.litbang. pertanian.go.id/ind/images/ stories/0-----leafhopper.jpg>
ans
<https://microbewiki.kenyon. edu/images/c/c9/Green_ leafhopper_RTBV.jpg>

Links
Information on rice tungro disease:
<http://www.knowledgebank. irri.org/training/fact-sheets/ pest-management/diseases/item/ tungro>,
<https://www.plantwise.org/ KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx? dsid=47654>,
<http://www.agritech.tnau.ac. in/expert_system/paddy/ cpdistungro.html>,
<https://scialert.net/ fulltextmobile/?doi=pjbs.2015. 285.289>,
<https://www.jircas.go.jp/ja/ file/8165/download?token= nyQKvsz8>,
<http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/ content/rice-tungro>,
<http://www.cpsskerala.in/OPC/ pages/riceDiseasetungro.jsp> (with
pictures) and
<https://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/abs/10.1111/pbi.12927>
Information on tungro viruses:
<http://jvi.asm.org/content/ 74/5/2073.full>,
<http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/ showdpv.php?dpvno=406>,
<http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/ showdpv.php?dpvno=407> and
<http://www.genome.jp/ virushostdb/35287>
Virus taxonomy via:
<https://talk.ictvonline.org/ taxonomy/>
Green leafhopper information and taxonomy:
<https://www.cabi.org/isc/ datasheet/36198>,
<http://www1.dpi.nsw.gov.au/ keys/cicadell/species/ ecokey64.htm> and
<http://www.ces.csiro.au/aicn/ system/c_1482.htm>
 - Mod.DHA]

[See Also:
2010
----
Tungro, blast, bacterial blight, rice - India: (TN, OR)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20100912.3299
2009
----
Tungro disease, rice - Philippines (03): (AQ)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20091106.3833
Tungro disease, rice - Philippines (02)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20090726.2639
Tungro disease, rice - Philippines: (AK)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20090430.1634
2008
---
Tungro disease, rice - Philippines: (SCO)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20080902.2744
Virus diseases, rice - Viet Nam: update (02)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20080322.1093
Virus diseases, rice - Viet Nam: update
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20080118.0221
2007
---
Virus disease, rice - Viet Nam (02)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20070614.1939
Virus disease, rice - Viet Nam
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20070611.1899]
................................ ...................sb/dha/msp/ mpp
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ProMED
Tungro
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Philippines

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