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2018-04-28T04:00:00.0000000Z
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ROOT KNOT DISEASE, CITRUS AND GUAVA - INDIA: (TAMIL NADU)

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Date: Sun 8 Apr 2018
Source: Kaplan Herald [edited]
<https://kaplanherald.com/ 2018/04/08/root-knot-nematode- in-citrus-plants-found-for- first-time-in-tamil-nadu/>

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) has identified root-knot
nematode in citrus plants for the 1st time in Tamil Nadu. A farmer had
brought a wilted citrus sapling. TNAU's K Poornima said, "We found
that the sapling was infected with root-knot nematodes. In the past
few months, we found root-knot in citrus saplings in Coimbatore and
Erode districts."

"There are also instances where there have been heavy losses in
guava," said TNAU's S Subramanian [ProMED-mail post
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20180305.5665346]. "Over the past 4 to 5
years, several new varieties of guava were introduced in the state.
They have been affected by nematodes and [this] has caused severe
losses." The annual loss in fruit crops due to nematodes was pegged at
13 per cent, he said.

The department has been researching how to tackle the nematodes.
Beneficial fungi known to inhibit nematode growth have been produced
[for] farmers. Workshops for farmers and nursery owners [have been
conducted].
--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Root knot nematodes (_Meloidogyne_ species) attack a wide range of
plants and cause significant economic losses in many vegetable and
fruit crops. The genus contains around 70 species and is found
worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions in many types of soil.
Symptoms may include stunting, wilting and leaf chlorosis; large galls
are formed throughout the root system affecting plant vigour and even
killing the host. Affected plants may show increased sensitivity to
other bacterial or fungal pathogens.

The nematodes can persist in the soil for many years and are spread by
plant material, soil and mechanical means (for example contaminated
equipment). Once they have been established in an area, it is
difficult to control or eradicate them. Disease management requires an
integrated approach including phytosanitary and cultural measures,
nematicides and use of resistant crop varieties.

_M.. enterolobii_ was identified in 2016 as the cause of a guava wilt
in Tamil Nadu (see ProMED-mail post
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20180305.5665346). This species is
considered an emerging and particularly aggressive pathogen with
increased virulence against crop varieties resistant to other root
knot nematodes and may also be causing the problems in citrus reported
above.

Maps
India (with states):
<http://www.mapsofindia.com/ maps/india/india-political- map.htm>
Tamil Nadu districts:
<http://www.mapsofindia.com/ maps/tamilnadu/tamilnadu- district.htm>

Pictures
Citrus trees affected by root knot disease:
<http://www.lsuagcenter.com/~/ media/system/3/b/3/2/ 3b324e66922be95f47fb7a9a8afad4 5f/rootknot%20on%20peachjpg. jpg>
Root knot symptoms on vegetable crops:
<http://www.arc.agric.za/ uploads/images/1798_Root-knot% 20nematode%20on%20potato.jpg>
(potato),
<https://guilford.ces.ncsu. edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/ 05/sweet-potatoes.jpg>
(sweet potato) and
<https://www.degruyter.com/ view/j/helm.2016.53.issue-2/ helmin-2016-0001/graphic/j_ helmin-2016-0001_fig_001.jpg>
(capsicum)
Root knot nematode and gall:
<http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/ PMG/M/N-RK-MSPP-AD.001.html>
_Meloidogyne_ photo gallery:
<https://www.insectimages.org/ browse/subthumb.cfm?sub=7001>

Links
Additional news story:
<http://www.freshplaza.com/ article/192474/Southern-India- Root-knot-nematode-in-citrus- plants-found-for-first-time>
Information on citrus root knot disease:
<https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/ diseases/citrus-diseases?page= 0%2C2>
Information on root-knot (and other) nematodes:
<http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/ PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7489.html#LIFE >,
<https://www.apsnet.org/ edcenter/intropp/lessons/ Nematodes/Article%20Images/ RootknotNematodediscycle.jpg>
(life cycle) and via
<http://nemaplex.ucdavis.edu/ Taxadata/G076.aspx>
Information on _M. enterolobii_:
<http://www.eppo.org/ QUARANTINE/Alert_List/ nematodes/meloidogyne_ enterolobii.htm>
Genus _Meloidogyne_ taxonomy and species list:
<http://www.uniprot.org/ taxonomy/189290>. - Mod.DHA]

[See Also:
Meloidogyne enterolobii decline, guava - India: 1st rep (TN)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20180305.5665346
2017
----
Meloidogyne enterolobii root knot, yam - Nigeria: 1st rep
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20170706.5154581
2013
----
Meloidogyne enterolobii root knot, potato - South Africa: (NL)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20130918.1951868
2012
----
Root knot, rice - India: north, emerging disease
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20120802.1225341
Wilt, guava - South Africa: northern
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20120719.1206910
Undiagnosed disease, maize - Kenya: (RV)
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20120117.1012452
2011
----
Cyst & root knot nematodes, vegetables: updates
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20110321.0885
2008
----
Wilt, guava - India: (Uttar Pradesh
http://promedmail.org/post/ 20080109.0109
2007
----
Quick & slow wilts, black pepper - India (Kerala)
http://promedmail..org/post/ 20070807.2565
and additional items on root knot nematodes in the archives]
............................... ....................sb/dha/ec/ jh
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ProMED
Citrus
India
Meloidogyne
Root_knot_nematode
Guava
Tamil_Naidu

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