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2021-11-24T08:12:00.0000000Z
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Monarchs evolved mutations to withstand milkweed toxins; so did their predators

Phys.Org

by University of California - Berkeley
Monarch butterflies and their close relatives thrive on poisonous milkweed, thanks to genetic mutations that block the effects of the plant's toxins while allowing the poisons to accumulate in the caterpillar or adult insects as deterrents to hungry predators.

Turns out some of those insect-eating predators evolved similar mutations in order to feast on monarchs.

In a study appearing this week in the journal Current Biology, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, and UC Riverside report monarch-like genetic mutations in the genomes of four organisms that are known to eat monarchs: the black-headed grosbeak, a migratory bird that snacks on the butterflies at their overwintering home in Mexico; the eastern deer mouse, a close relative of the Mexican black-eared deer mouse that feeds on butterflies that fall to the ground; a tiny wasp that parasitizes monarch eggs; and a nematode that parasitizes insect larvae that feed on milkweed.

All four organisms have evolved mutations in one or more copies of a gene for the sodium-potassium pump—the same mutations, in fact, as milkweed butterflies, and ones that the researchers and their collaborators showed two years ago were critical to the monarch's ability to eat milkweed without succumbing to its toxins.

Read on: https://phys.org/news/2021-11-monarchs-evolved-mutations-milkweed-toxins.html

Monarch_butterfly
Milkweed
Toxins

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