Sydney NSW, Australia
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A ProMED-mail post
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International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: August 2017
Source: Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) [edited]
<https://www. documents/item/557>

_Candidatus_ Liberibacter solanacearum has been detected in New South
Wales in the Italian Giant variety of imported parsley seed. In most
cases, the bacterium does not damage parsley plants but has the
potential to cause serious damage to some other Apiaceae crops which
include carrot, celery, chervil, fennel, and parsnip.

This is the 1st time this bacterium has been detected in Australia.
Whilst [it] is spread by psyllids, these particular psyllids are not
present in Australia.

The seeds originated in France but were imported through a supplier in
Italy. The NSW Department of Primary Industries is tracing the
affected seeds [to] determine the extent of their distribution. These
seeds were imported prior to emergency measures introduced in April
communicated by:
IBIS (International Biosecurity Intelligence System)

[Only a few members of _Candidatus_ Liberibacter have been
characterised so far, including the pathogens causing citrus greening
(see previous ProMED-mail posts in the archives) which is limited to
these crops due to the host specificity of the psyllid vectors.

_Ca._ Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso) was found to be associated with
zebra chip (ZC) of potato, as well as a yellowing disease of tomato
and capsicum in New Zealand. Lso has since also been associated with
yellowing diseases of other solanaceous crops and some crops in the
family Apiaceae. Main vectors of Lso are the potato psyllid
(_Bactericera cockerelli_) in solanaceous host and carrot psyllids
(_Trioza apicalis_, _Bactericera trigonica_) in Apiaceae. These
vectors have a much wider host range than the greening vectors and
additional vector species are also being identified, further extending
potential host range and economic impact of Lso.

The Lso species is divided into haplotypes: A and B affecting
Solanaceae; C, D and E affecting Apiaceae. Both groups of haplotypes
have been reported from the Americas and New Zealand. Carrot
haplotypes have been reported from Europe (ProMED-mail posts 20120713.1199961, 20151009.3702151, 20161130.4666613), northern Africa
(ProMED-mail post 20141121.2978030) and the
Middle East (ProMED-mail post 20170130.4803773). However, haplotype E was
recently also detected in potatoes in Spain [ProMED-mail post 20170802.5222241], representing the 1st
report of a haplotype being able to infect both Apiaceae and
Solanaceae. This suggests that a lot more research is needed on
epidemiology, biology and distribution of Lso worldwide.

Lso haplotypes D and E were shown to be present in different cultivars
of commercial parsley seed from different sources in the UK (see link
below). Thus, Lso infection in commercial parsley appears to be
widespread but largely asymptomatic. Furthermore, Lso vector psyllids
feed on this crop. This makes parsley a likely reservoir host for Lso
and thus an international quarantine risk.

(This report was received by ProMED-mail with delay, but it is of
ongoing significance.)

Australia (with states):
< australia/large-detailed- topographical-map-of- australia.jpg>

Lso affected carrot:
< plosone/article/figure/image? size=medium&id=info:doi/10. 1371/journal.pone.0161016.g002 >
< data/taxon/L/LIBEPS/pics/ 1024x0/1939.jpg>
(compared with healthy)
Lso symptoms on tomato:
<http://nwdistrict.ifas.ufl. edu/phag/files/2014/10/Fig-7- PY-Dufault.jpg>
< sites/gateway/files/DSCN1891% 20-%20Tomato%20plant% 20infected%20by%20Candidatus% 20Liberibacter%20solanacearum% 20%28A2239974%29.jpg>
Zebra chip of potato:
<http://www.forestryimages. org/images/3072x2048/1490010. jpg>,
< sites/gateway/files/DSCN3444% 20-%20Symptoms%20of%20zebra% 20chip%20%28Candidatus% 20Liberibacter%20solanacearum% 29%20on%20potatoes%20% 28A2239972%29.png>,
<> and
<http://www.digitaljournal. com/img/4/2/9/0/i/4/1/7/o/ 8ab1aa702fece1872973ac17aec85b 6f.jpg>
(processed infected tuber, compared with healthy)
Lso, microscopy:
< system/images/1223/medium/ Candidatus_Liberibacter.jpg? 1319706599>
Lso photo gallery:
< LIBEPS/photos>
Carrot psyllid:
< uk/homoptera/Psylloidea/ Psyllidae_images/Trioza_ apicalis_2.jpg>

Additional news story:
<https://www. news/candidatus-liberibacter- solanacearum-calsol-detected- in-the-italian-gi>
NGIA biosecurity alert:
< Story?Action=View&Story_id= 2368>
Information on _Ca._ Liberibacter solanacearum:
< QUARANTINE/Alert_List/ bacteria/Liberibacter_ psyllaurous.htm>,
<http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/10.1111/epp.12043/pdf> ,
< datasheet/109434>,
< downloads/Weir_CS23.pdf> and via
< EPPOReporting/2012/Rse-1209. pdf>
Lso haplotypes:
< article/10.1007/s10658-012- 0121-3/fulltext.html>
< publications/Potato_Diseases_ Workshop/9.%20Poliakoff_C% 20liberabacter%20solanacearum% 20in%20carrot%20France.pdf>
Lso on parsley seed:
< article.php?id=034031>
Information on Lso psyllid vectors:
< publications/plantdisease/ 2012/April/Pages/96_4_581.3. aspx>,
< pubmed/20857712>,
<http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/10.1111/j.1744-7348. 2012.00551.x/full>,
<http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/10.1111/aab.12149/ abstract> and
< plosone/article?id=10.1371/ journal.pone.0161016>
Information on potato zebra chip disease:
<http://www.digitaljournal. com/article/257488> and
< article/10.1007/s10658-010- 9702-1/fulltext.html>
_Ca._ L. solanacearum taxonomy:
< taxonomy/556287>
Genus _Ca._ Liberibacter taxonomy and species list:
< taxonomy/34019>
Information and resources for psyllids:
<>. - Mod.DHA]

[See Also:
Liberibacter, carrot - Greece: 1st rep (TC) 20171112.5435078
Liberibacter solanacearum, potato - Spain: (CB) 20170802.5222241
Liberibacter, carrot - Israel: 1st rep 20170130.4803773
Liberibacter, carrot - Sweden: (HA) 20161130.4666613
Liberibacter, carrot - Germany: 1st rep (NI) 20151009.3702151
Liberibacter, solanaceous crops - Norfolk Island: 1st rep. 20150417.3303297
Liberibacter, carrot - Africa: 1st rep, Morocco 20141121.2978030
Liberibacter, vegetable crops - multicountry 20120713.1199961
and older items in the archives]
............................... ...................dha/ec/sh
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