Sydney NSW, Australia
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2023-05-12T23:33:00.0000000Z
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RUST, GARLIC - INDIA: (HIMACHAL PRADESH)

ProMED
http://www.promedmail.org

Source: United News of India (UNI) [summ. Mod.DHA, edited]
http://www.uniindia.com/farmers-upset-due-to-yellow-rust-disease-in-garlic/north/news/2968745.html

Farmers are worried about rust disease in garlic in some areas Himachal Pradesh. The crop was about to be harvested soon. Garlic leaves in the fields are turning yellow with symptoms of rust in the crops. The Agriculture Department has advised farmers to spray fungicides to control the disease.
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Communicated by:
ProMED

[Rust of garlic (_Allium sativum_) and related allium crops (such as onion, leek is caused by the fungus _Puccinia porri_ (previously _P. allii_). However, some strains have been reported to appear to be specialised to infect one particular host species. Symptoms may include yellowing, wilting, drying and premature death of leaves; reduced size and quality of bulbs; lack of protective outer skins of bulbs, making them susceptible to shattering during harvest.

Rust spores are wind dispersed over long distances. They can also be spread by mechanical means (human or insect activities) and on contaminated materials (equipment, clothing, crop debris). The fungi need living tissue to survive between seasons. Volunteer crop and wild host plants may generate a "green bridge" providing inoculum to infect new crops. Disease management relies mainly on timely fungicide applications, choice of crop cultivars, control of volunteer crop plants and use of disease free planting material. Early discovery of infection is important so action can be taken to limit pathogen spread as well as build-up of inoculum.

New strains of rusts with increased virulence may emerge, including strains showing additional fungicide resistances and/or the ability to break down genetic resistances of specific host varieties. Monitoring and resistance breeding programmes for early detection of new rust strains is important for effective crop production.

Maps
India (with states):
http://www.mapsofindia.com/images2/india-map.jpg and
https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8710009,304

Pictures
Garlic with rust symptoms:
https://www.gardenbetty.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/2011-07-11-02.jpg,
http://www.hort.cornell.edu/livegpath/images/garlic_rust_leavesx1200.jpg,
https://reallygoodwriter.com/images/2012JulyGarlicRustSpot.jpg, and
https://i.pinimg.com/originals/f6/7e/c0/f67ec09f557c22689db4b8ebd25c8d04.jpg

Links
Information on garlic rust:
https://pnwhandbooks.org/plantdisease/host-disease/garlic-allium-sativum-rust,
https://blogs.cornell.edu/livegpath/gallery/garlic/garlic-rust/,
https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/edible/vegetables/onion/onion-plant-rust-treatment.htm,
https://goodlifepermaculture.com.au/garlic-rust/ (with pictures) and via
http://plantclinic.cornell.edu/factsheets/garlicdiseases.pdf
_P. porri_ taxonomy & synonyms:
http://www.indexfungorum.org/names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=146618 and
https://www.speciesfungorum.org/Names/SynSpecies.asp?RecordID=190235
- Mod.DHA]

India
Garlic
rust

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