Sydney NSW, Australia
For your information
2023-04-22T20:59:00.0000000Z
   0
STRIPE RUST, WHEAT - PAKISTAN: (KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA)

ProMED

Source: Dawn [summ. Mod.DHA, edited]
https://www.dawn.com/news/1748057/yellow-rust-disease-hits-wheat-crop-in-bajaur
An outbreak of yellow rust has been reported in several areas of Bajaur district (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), affecting the wheat crop. Growers said the disease was reported a week ago and has affected the crop on a vast area of land. However, local agriculture department teams visited the affected areas and informed the growers about how to control it.

An official of the agriculture department claimed due to their effective response the disease had been controlled in many areas of the district. They said teams would continue to visit the affected areas and advise on the control of the disease. They said fungicide spray was the best solution to eradicate the disease.
--
Communicated by:
ProMED
[Stripe rust (also called yellow rust) of cereals is caused by the fungus _Puccinia striiformis_. The disease affects wheat (_Triticum aestivum_), durum wheat (_T. turgidum_), some barley varieties, triticale (wheat/rye hybrids), and a number of wild grasses. It causes yellow stripes on leaves leading to loss of photosynthetic ability and plant vigour, as well as stunting of plants. Yield losses of 40-100% have been reported in wheat.

Spores are wind dispersed in several cycles during the cropping season. Grasses and volunteer crop plants may generate a "green bridge" providing inoculum for the next crop cycle. Disease monitoring is important so that timely action can be taken to limit the spread of the pathogen as well as build-up of inoculum. Disease management may include the use of resistant crop varieties, fungicide applications, and control of pathogen reservoirs. Monitoring and resistance breeding programmes have been established in different regions for early detection of new rust strains and to attempt to stay ahead of pathogen evolution.

While stem rust (_P. graminis_) poses a huge potential threat to world wheat production, stripe rust is currently causing the most damage to wheat crops on a global scale. New strains of both rusts with increased virulence and additional fungicide resistances have been reported in recent years from wheat-growing areas worldwide. Climate warming allowing survival of wheat rusts on green bridges into higher latitudes is another example of pathogens extending their range due to climate change (e.g. ProMED posts 20141024.2895414, 20120809.1235745, 20090914.3230, 20110718.2172). Projects for double-resistance breeding to manage both stripe and stem rusts simultaneously are in progress (see ProMED post 20120831.1274190).

The Himalayan region, including parts of India and Pakistan, has been identified as a source of most of the aggressive stripe rust races that have arrived in Europe over recent years (ProMED post 20150717.3517395). A general alert for all wheat rusts had earlier been issued in Pakistan (see link below).

Maps
Pakistan:
https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8709599,45922,
https://geology.com/world/pakistan-province-map.gif (with provinces)
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa districts:
https://i.pinimg.com/564x/40/36/e4/4036e45e7628dd6ce162c24cba044839.jpg

Pictures
Stripe rust symptoms on wheat:
https://www.realagriculture.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/stripe-rust-3-signature-small2.jpeg,
http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/brief/2005/stripe/image/wheat3.jpg and
https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/sites/gateway/files/styles/original/public/Stripe%20rust%20infected%20glume.JPG
Stripe rust on barley:
http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Barley-stripe-rust-1.jpg,
https://extensionaus.com.au/FieldCropDiseasesVic/wp-content/uploads/sites/25/2017/03/Fig-2.-Barley-stripe-rust-.jpg and
https://pnwhandbooks.org/sites/pnwhandbooks/files/plant/images/barley-hordeum-vulgare-stripe-rust/225.jpg
Ryegrass with stripe rust:
http://www.science.oregonstate.edu/bpp/Plant_Clinic/images/ryegrass_stripe%20rust.jpg and
http://plant-pest-advisory.rutgers.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/photo-15-e1378922274640.jpg

Links
Information on stripe rust:
https://www.ars.usda.gov/midwest-area/stpaul/cereal-disease-lab/docs/cereal-rusts/wheat-stripe-rust/,
https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/mycrop/diagnosing-stripe-rust-wheat,
http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/pests/barley-stripe-rust/,
http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r730100511.html, and
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/158964/stripe-rust-in-wheat.pdf
Stripe rust global tracking, current race analysis, and distribution:
http://wheatrust.org/yellow-rust-tools-maps-and-charts/ and
http://rusttracker.cimmyt.org/?page_id=9
Stripe rust reviews:
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01057 and
https://globalrust.org/sites/default/files/posters/solh_2012.pdf
_P. striiformis_ taxonomy, and synonyms:
http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=227064 and
http://www.speciesfungorum.org/Names/SynSpecies.asp?RecordID=227064
Earlier wheat rust alert, Pakistan:
https://www.urdupoint.com/en/agriculture/wheat-farmers-told-to-beware-of-rust-amid-exp-1643588.html
Wheat rusts overview, including epidemiology and spore types:
http://www.fao.org/3/y4011e/y4011e0g.htm
Global Rust Initiative:
https://bgri.cornell.edu/
- Mod.DHA]

ProMED
Wheat
Stripe_rust

No responses yet...