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Transcriptional changes of biochemical pathways in Meloidogyne incognita in response to non-fumigant nematicides


Scientific Reports volume 12, Article number: 9875 (2022) Cite this article


Meloidogyne incognita is a destructive and economically important agricultural pest. Similar to other plant-parasitic nematodes, management of M. incognita relies heavily on chemical controls. As old, broad spectrum, and toxic nematicides leave the market, replacements have entered including fluensulfone, fluazaindolizine, and fluopyram that are plant-parasitic nematode specific in target and less toxic to applicators. However, there is limited research into their modes-of-action and other off-target cellular effects caused by these nematicides in plant-parasitic nematodes. This study aimed to broaden the knowledge about these new nematicides by examining the transcriptional changes in M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) after 24-h exposure to fluensulfone, fluazaindolizine, and fluopyram as well as oxamyl, an older non-fumigant nematicide. Total RNA was extracted and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq to investigate transcriptional changes in the citric acid cycle, the glyoxylate pathway, -fatty acid oxidation pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, and acetylcholine neuron components. Observed transcriptional changes in M. incognita exposed to fluopyram and oxamyl corresponded to their respective modes-of-action. Potential targets for fluensulfone and fluazaindolizine were identified in the -fatty acid oxidation pathway and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase of the citric acid cycle, respectively. This study provides a foundation for understanding how potential nematicide resistance could develop, identifies cellular pathways as potential nematicide targets, and determines targets for confirming unknown modes-of-action.

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