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A ProMED-mail post
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International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Thu 21 Jun 2018
Source: HortiDaily [edited]

The Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) has, in
the outbreak investigation of the _Tomato chlorosis virus_ (ToCV),
found 7 companies affected by the quarantine disease. These are added
to the 11 companies that had already been discovered. The
investigation has been completed, Rob Hageman, NVWA, reports, "But we
continue to carefully monitor the situation."

During this outbreak investigation, which started at the end of
February [2018] and ended in April [2018], the authority examined
about 40 tomato companies in Westland [province of South Holland] and
another 40 in the rest of the Netherlands. In two-thirds of the cases,
it concerned companies with lighted cultivation.
communicated by:
[_Tomato chlorosis virus_ (ToCV; genus _Crinivirus_) has been reported
from Europe and a number of locations in other parts of the world.
Besides tomato, it can also affect capsicum and some solanaceous weeds
which may serve as pathogen reservoirs, as well as some ornamental and
weed species in other families. Symptoms on tomato leaves may include
irregular chlorotic mottle, interveinal yellowing, necrotic flecks and
possible distortions. No obvious symptoms develop on fruit and
flowers, but fruit size and numbers are reduced due to a loss of
photosynthetic area. Significant yield losses occur as a result, but
symptom severity varies with host cultivars. Symptoms may be confused
with nutritional problems and are also similar to those of the related
_Tomato infectious chlorosis virus_ (TICV) of the same genus. Both
ToCV and TICV are included on the A2 quarantine list of the European
Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO).

ToCV is transmitted by a number of whitefly vectors, including
_Bemisia tabaci_, and outbreaks are usually associated with high
vector populations. Whiteflies are a serious pest in themselves and
have also been reported to transmit over 100 virus species. Multiple
infections with viruses sharing these vectors (for example,
coinfection of ToCV and TICV, see ProMED-mail post are not unusual and may
result in symbiotic enhancement of symptoms (synergism) of the
co-infecting viruses.

Control of whitefly transmitted viruses is particularly difficult in
open field crops due to the widespread presence and wide host range of
whiteflies. Disease management of these viruses is difficult and
includes vector control, removal of reservoirs of both virus and
vectors, use of crop varieties with increased pathogen tolerance and
clean planting material.

Netherlands provinces:
Europe, overview:

ToCV symptoms on tomato:
Photo gallery of symptoms of different begomoviruses:

ToCV information:
<> (with pictures),
Virus taxonomy via:
_B. tabaci_ whiteflies, taxonomy and biotypes:
<> (with
Information on whitefly vectors:
<> and via
EPPO A2 quarantine list:
- Mod.DHA

HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Netherlands: <>]

[See Also:
Vegetable viruses - Spain: (AN) alert
Tomato chlorosis virus - Tunisia: 1st rep (KR)
Tomato chlorosis virus - China: 1st rep (BJ)
Tomato chlorosis virus - Cuba: 1st report
Tomato chlorosis virus - Turkey, Mayotte: 1st reports
Tomato chlorosis virus, tomato - Cyprus: 1st report
Tomato chlorosis, tomato - France (Reunion Island): 1st report
Tomato criniviruses - France: 1st report
and older items in the archives]
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