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2022-09-07T06:27:00.0000000Z
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PLUM POX VIRUS, PEACH - SPAIN: (VALENCIA)

ProMED
http://www.promedmail.org

Source: Fresh Plaza [summ. Mod.DHA, edited]
https://www.freshplaza.com/article/9453929/the-valencian-community-s-summer-fruit-sector-is-at-risk/

La Unio de Llauradors said that the Valencian summer fruit sector is at risk. In addition to a decrease in production due to weather conditions, sharka disease has been detected in peach orchards.To date, this disease had only affected apricot farmers. For peaches, a loss of approximately 50% of production has been recorded, compared with the past 5 years.

Sharka is not considered a quarantine disease in the EU, but due to the seriousness of the situation and because the infection in peach crops is only at its start, rapid and forceful action is considered necessary. La Unio has asked the Ministry of Agriculture to adopt measures to combat the disease, including sanctions against the nursery that sold the infected plants. Traceability of nursery plants, a guarantee of the non-dispersal of plant material from affected or potentially affected plots, disinfection and replanting of affected nurseries are also requested.
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Communicated by:
ProMED

[_Plum pox virus_ (PPV; genus _Potyvirus_; also called Sharka virus) has been reported from Europe, parts of Asia, northern Africa and the Americas, but is still absent from Australia and New Zealand. It affects species in the genus _Prunus_ and may cause up to 100% yield loss in stone fruit crops. Some hosts in other genera are also susceptible, including hops, pea, tomato and a number of weedy annual plants. Symptoms on _Prunus_ species can occur on leaves and fruit. They may include ring or line patterns, mottling, distortion, premature fruit drop and shoot dieback. Infection may be symptomless in some host species. PPV isolates have been grouped into strains, some of which do not infect certain _Prunus_ species. Strains of PPV-D infect peach, plum and apricot. PPV has been included in the A2 quarantine list of the European Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO).

PPV is transmitted by a number of aphid species, mechanical means (such as orchard tools), grafting, as well as by infected propagation and other plant material. It may be seed transmitted in some host species but is not known to be transmitted by pollen or plant-to-plant contact. The importance of herbaceous plants in the epidemiology of PPV is still being debated. Cuttings of stone fruit trees pose the greatest risk of introducing the virus to a new area. Disease management is difficult but may include control of the vector insects, removal of virus reservoirs, as well as use of certified planting and grafting material. For some PPV strains, resistant cultivars are available in several types of stone fruits. Specific molecular tests have been developed to distinguish viral strains.

Maps
Spain:
http://www.map-of-spain.co.uk/maps-of-spain/spain/large_map-of-spain2.jpg
Spain autonomous communities and provinces:
http://bit.ly/2CRop74 and
http://www.venamicasa.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/spain_map3.gif
Europe, overview:
https://mapofeurope.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/europe-political-map.jpg

Pictures
PPV symptoms on
- Peach:
https://pnwhandbooks.org/sites/pnwhandbooks/files/plant/images/peach-prunus-persica-plum-pox-sharka/ppvpeachfruit009010001b.jpg and
https://pnwhandbooks.org/sites/pnwhandbooks/files/plant/images/peach-prunus-persica-plum-pox-sharka/ppvleaf6b.jpg
- Apricot:
https://www.nexles.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Plum-pox-virus-affected-fruits.jpg,
https://www.canr.msu.edu/contentAsset/image/d1eda7f1-8247-42e5-94cf-0eaf281fb6b2/fileAsset/filter/Resize/resize_w/500,
http://bugwoodcloud.org/images/768x512/0660078.jpg and
https://i0.wp.com/southeastagnet.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Plum_pox_in_apricot-1024x521.jpg
- Plum:
http://www.insectimages.org/images/768x512/0177023.jpg and
http://ezramagazine.cornell.edu/Fall08/images/photos/Plum_pox_leaf.jpg
Photo galleries of PPV symptoms on different hosts:
http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/subimages.cfm?sub=9385 and
https://bit.ly/3RpfcFq

Links
Additional news story (in German):
https://www.freshplaza.de/article/9453931/der-sommerfruchtsektor-in-der-autonomen-gemeinschaft-valencia-ist-in-gefahr/
Information on PPV and sharka disease:
https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/PPV000 (with pictures),
https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/42203,
https://www.canr.msu.edu/ipm/diseases/plum_pox_virus and
https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/apsnetfeatures/Pages/PlumPoxPotyvirus.aspx
PPV strains:
http://www.science.oregonstate.edu/bpp/Plant_Clinic/Disease_sheets/plumpoxfs.pdf,
https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12083 and
https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-11-12-0285-R
Virus taxonomy via:
https://talk.ictvonline.org/taxonomy/
EPPO A2 alert list:
https://www.eppo.int/ACTIVITIES/plant_quarantine/A2_list
Information, pictures and taxonomy for aphid vectors:
http://bugguide.net/node/view/147
- Mod.DHA

Plum_pox_virus

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