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2022-05-02T21:34:00.0000000Z
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WART DISEASE, POTATO - TURKEY: QUARANTINE

ProMED
http://www.promedmail.org

Source: FreshPlaza [summ. Mod.DHA, edited]
https://www.freshplaza.com/article/9423139/turkey-quarantine-being-implemented-in-26-provinces-due-potato-wart-disease/
An official announcement states that potato wart disease has invaded agricultural lands in Turkey. The disease came with imported seed tubers and has so far been found in 25 provinces. Quarantine has been implemented in 26 provinces, but it was not disclosed which of the provinces were included.

Since potatoes can now not be planted for 28 years in the infected areas, a national potato crisis is imminent. In some provinces, cultivation has decreased significantly due to potato wart. Where the disease is found, only forage crops can be grown.

According to the activity report of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, no compensation payments were made in 2021 to potato producers affected by the quarantine.
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Communicated by:
ProMED

[Potato wart disease (PW) is caused by the fungus _Synchytrium endobioticum_ which is considered one of the most important pathogens of the crop. It is endemic in Europe and has also been reported from a number of locations in the Americas, Australasia, and Africa. The pathogen can also affect tomato and some solanaceous weeds. On infected potato tubers, "eyes" develop into characteristic warty, cauliflower-like swellings. If infected early, the whole tuber can be replaced by a warty proliferation. Warts darken with age, eventually rot and disintegrate. Plant vigour is reduced, both quantity and quality of harvested tubers are severely affected. Diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation, as similar symptoms can be caused by other pathogens. The fungus goes through cycles of proliferation and re-infection as long as cool, wet conditions prevail and is, therefore, less damaging in warm, light, well-drained soils.

The disease is spread with soil (for example on farm tools), by infected seed tubers, and also in manure from animals fed on infected potatoes. The fungus can survive in soil for up to 40 years in the absence of a host. Disease management is based on pathogen exclusion by quarantine regulations and the control of local pathogen spread. Use of certified clean seed tubers is crucial; contaminated seed lines pose major risks of losses both in yield and international trade. Fungicides are ineffective, but some experimental fumigation treatments have been shown to kill resting sporangia.

There are several pathotypes defined by their virulence on different host cultivars. Potato varieties resistant to a number of them have been developed, but new pathogen strains are emerging, compromising the efficacy of host plant resistance.

Maps
Turkey:
https://geology.com/world/turkey-map.gif and
https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8702976,87
Turkey provinces:
http://turkishtravelblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Map-of-Turkey-and-81-provinces.jpg

Pictures
Potato wart symptoms:
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Z2I9uCcxJIk/T4B8yBdYhMI/AAAAAAAAAow/OtwqNyxejak/s1600/potato+wart+disease.jpg,
http://ephytia.inra.fr/en/I/29780/Gale-verruqueuse1, and
http://www.forestryimages.org/images/768x512/0454023.jpg
_S. endobioticum_, microscopy:
https://bugwoodcloud.org/images/768x512/0454042.jpg

Links
Information on potato wart disease:
https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/SYNCEN (with country information),
https://planthealthportal.defra.gov.uk/assets/factsheets/pwd.pdf,
https://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=52315,
http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/pestrava/synend/tech/synende.shtml, and
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070618102406.htm
Potato wart life cycle:
http://joelfloydillustration.com/images/pathogens/potatowart_lifecycle_jf.jpg
_S. endobioticum_ taxonomy:
http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=120395
- Mod.DHA]

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