Source: Daijiworld [summ. Mod.DHA, edited]
In coastal districts of Karnataka, coconut plantations are getting affected by stem bleeding disease. Scientists are suggesting spraying of suitable chemicals to eradicate the disease or its spread. They have called on agriculturists and farmers to take precautionary measures right away to prevent the coconut crops being affected by diseases.
The Central Coconut Development Board is providing financial support for coconut plantations that have dried up or been infected by diseases. Similarly, financial assistance is being provided to plant coconut trees.
[Stem bleeding disease of coconut palm is caused by the fungus _Ceratocystis paradoxa_, if it infects wounds in the trunk. External stress factors are thought to increase host sensitivity to infection. The pathogen can also affect a number of other palm species, causing a range of bud or stem rots, as well as black scorch of date palm (e.g. ProMED post 20210806.8573238), alone or in coinfection. Symptoms of coconut stem bleeding may include brown exudate from trunk wounds; lesions spread upwards and tissues below rot; trunks become hollow due to interior decay; finally, fronds turn yellow, crowns are reduced, fruit production ceases and trees may die. Disease development is favoured by high humidity and trunk wetness.
The fungus is soil borne and survives on plant debris in soils. Spread may also occur by water, mechanical means (for example on cutting tools) and with plant material. Beetles have been reported as important vectors in some hosts. Disease management may include orchard sanitation (burning of infected plant matter or whole palms), disinfection of cutting tools and wounds resulting from harvesting or frond pruning, as well as sprays of copper-based fungicides.
Outbreaks of stem bleeding of coconut have been reported from India previously (e.g. ProMED post 20120530.1149915).
The fungus also causes pineapple disease of sugarcane (ProMED post 20120208.1035881).
India (with states):
Stem bleeding disease symptoms on coconut:
Information on stem bleeding disease of coconut:
_C. paradoxa_ taxonomy and synonyms: