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WART DISEASE, POTATO - UKRAINE: (IVANO-FRANKIVSK, CHERNIVTSI)

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Date: Sat 14 Jul 2018
Source: The Bobr Times [edited]
<https://bobrtimes.com/in-two-regions-of-ukraine-revealed-cancer-potato/69219/>

During monitoring, inspectors found cancer [of] potato, _Synchytrium
endobioticum_, in Ivano-Frankivsk in the area of 4.45 hectares (about
11 acres) and Chernivtsi region on the area of 7.59 ha (nearly 19
acres).

After [the] results, [orders were] issued for the destruction of the
identified organism, as well as [for] the procedure for moving
regulated objects in the quarantine zones and beyond.

[byline: Nash Konston]
--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Potato wart disease (PW) is caused by the fungus _Synchytrium
endobioticum_, which is considered one of the most important pathogens
of the crop. It is endemic in Europe and has also been reported from a
number of locations in the Americas, Australasia, and Africa. The
pathogen can also affect tomato and some solanaceous weeds.

On infected tubers, "eyes" develop into characteristic warty,
cauliflower-like swellings. If infected early, the whole tuber can be
replaced by a warty proliferation. Warts darken with age and
eventually rot and disintegrate. Plant vigour is reduced, and both
quantity and quality of harvested tubers are severely affected.
Diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation, as similar symptoms can be
caused by other pathogens. The fungus goes through cycles of
proliferation and re-infection as long as cool, wet conditions prevail
and is, therefore, less damaging in warm, light, well drained soils.

The disease is spread with soil (for example on farm tools), by
infected seed tubers and also in manure from animals fed on infected
potatoes. The fungus can survive in soil for up to 40 years in the
absence of a host. Disease management is based on pathogen exclusion
by quarantine regulations and the control of local pathogen spread.
Fungicides are ineffective, but some experimental fumigation
treatments have been shown to kill resting sporangia (see link below).
The pathogen has been included on the A2 quarantine list of the
European Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO).

There are several pathotypes defined by their virulence on different
host cultivars. Potato varieties resistant to a number of them have
been developed, but new pathogen strains are emerging, compromising
the efficacy of host plant resistance.

Maps
Ukraine, with regions:
<https://www.ezilon.com/maps/images/europe/political-map-of-Ukraine.gif>
Europe, overview:
<http://www.edinphoto.org.uk/0_MAPS/0_map_europe_political_2001_enlarged.jpg>

Pictures
Potato wart symptoms:
<http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Article%20Images/Potato_Fig01.jpg>,
<https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/K-12/NewsViews/Article%20Images/potatoblackwart.jpg>,
<http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Z2I9uCcxJIk/T4B8yBdYhMI/AAAAAAAAAow/OtwqNyxejak/s1600/potato+wart+disease.jpg>,
<http://ephytia.inra.fr/en/I/29780/Gale-verruqueuse1> and
<http://www.forestryimages.org/images/768x512/0454023.jpg>
_S. endobioticum_, microscopy:
<https://bugwoodcloud.org/images/768x512/0454042.jpg>

Links
Information on potato wart disease:
<https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/SYNCEN> (with pictures),
<http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/PotatoWart.aspx>,
<https://planthealthportal.defra.gov.uk/assets/factsheets/pwd.pdf>,
<https://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=52315>,
<http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/pestrava/synend/tech/synende.shtml>,
<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070618102406.htm> and
<https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/52315>
Potato wart life cycle:
<http://joelfloydillustration.com/images/pathogens/potatowart_lifecycle_jf.jpg>
Control of potato wart by fumigation:
<http://pubs.aic.ca/doi/abs/10.4141/cjps70-123>
_S. endobioticum_ taxonomy:
<http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=120395>
EPPO A2 quarantine list:
<https://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/listA2.htm>
- Mod.DHA

HealthMap/ProMED maps available at:
Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ukraine: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/8939>
Chernivtsi Oblast, Ukraine: <http://healthmap.org/promed/p/15605>]

[See Also:
Wart disease, potato - Sweden, Germany
http://promedmail.org/post/20180412.5743363
Wart & brown rot, potato - Georgia, Russia: interceptions
http://promedmail.org/post/20180327.5712463
2014
---
Wart disease, potato - Denmark: (MJ)
http://promedmail.org/post/20141008.2844631
Wart disease, potato - Canada: (PE)
http://promedmail.org/post/20140901.2738758
2012
---
Wart disease, potato - New Zealand: (SO)
http://promedmail.org/post/20120924.1306359
Wart disease, potato - UK: (N Ireland) eradication
http://promedmail.org/post/20120820.1252253
2009
---
Wart disease, potato - India: (WB)
http://promedmail.org/post/20091225.4346
2007
---
Potato wart disease - Canada: (PEI), spread
http://promedmail.org/post/20071102.3559
Pale cyst nematode & wart, potato - USA
http://promedmail.org/post/20070629.2088
2006
---
Quarantine Pests, New Data - EPPO (02)
http://promedmail.org/post/20060531.1521
2005
---
Potato wart disease - Turkey (Ordu Province): 1st report
http://promedmail.org/post/20050406.0990
and older items in the archives]
.................................................sb/dha/ao/sh
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ProMED
Potato_wart_disease
Ukraine

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