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2021-11-19T06:01:00.0000000Z
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ANTHRACNOSE, MANGO - UGANDA: (GULU, NWOYA)

ProMED
http://www.promedmail.org

Source: Uganda Radio Network [summ. Mod.DHA, edited]
https://ugandaradionetwork.com/story/fruit-canker-disease-ravages-mango-trees-in-gulu-nwoya-district

Anthracnose is ravaging mango trees in Gulu and Nwoya districts in the Northern Region. Trees in gardens and some villages are affected. The disease has attacked hundreds of mango trees in the districts, destroying almost all their fruits.

Farmers in both districts say that the disease started appearing between July and October this year [2021] during heavy rains. The disease has since persisted, attacking young and mature mango fruits, leaves, and flowers. Some growers have appealed to district authorities in charge of plant health to interest themselves in the disease.

Experts say that the easiest way to avoid problems is to grow anthracnose-resistant varieties and to plant trees in full sun where they dry off quickly after rainfall. They discourage farmers from applying irrigation water to the foliage, flowers, and fruit.

[Byline: Emmy Daniel Ojara]
--
Communicated by:
ProMED
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Anthracnose is considered the most important disease of mango. It is caused by the fungi _Colletotrichum gloeosporioides_ or _C. acutatum_. Symptoms may include flower blight, pre- and post-harvest fruit rot, twig dieback, and leaf spots. Anthracnose can completely destroy the flowers and cause extensive dead areas on leaves, greatly reducing tree vigour and yield. The fungi apparently invade the skin of young fruit and remain in a latent state until fruit ripening begins. Ripe fruit, either before or after picking, can then develop prominent dark-brown-to-black spots. Fruit infection commonly occurs and can result in extensive rotting.

The fungi have a long saprophytic survival ability on dead twigs and fallen leaves. These are the main sources of inoculum. Spread may occur with infected plant material, by mechanical means (including insect activities), and through water splash. The disease is favoured by humid conditions during the period from the onset of flowering until fruit are about half size. Control of anthracnose in mango usually centres on a diligent fungicide programme; it may also include phytosanitation to reduce inoculum, as well as cultural measures to reduce moisture in the orchard. More Indo-Chinese/Philippine type mango varieties show levels of resistance to anthracnose than Indian type varieties.

Fungi in the genus _Colletotrichum_ have been reported to cause anthracnose-like symptoms on many crops.

Maps
Uganda:
http://www.nationsonline.org/maps/uganda-political-map.jpg
Uganda districts:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Districts_of_Uganda

Pictures
Mango anthracnose symptoms on
- fruit:
https://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/uhmg/FAQ/FAQ-img/anthracnose-mango-WN.jpg,
http://barmac.com.au/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2016/01/Anthracnose-Mango.jpg,
http://pics.davesgarden.com/pics/2003/08/20/Thaumaturgist/256453.jpg,
https://c1.staticflickr.com/3/2181/13021759075_ecb5be0757_b.jpg and
http://docsdrive.com/images/ansinet/ppj/2014/fig2-2k14-268-277.jpg (scale of disease severity)
- leaves, flowers, inflorescence:
https://c1.staticflickr.com/9/8221/8291015097_2aedd367af_b.jpg,
https://c1.staticflickr.com/6/5540/9540312937_b354a55b92_b.jpg,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/55/Mango_anthracnose_1a.jpg and
http://tinyurl.com/y7c2mq37
Mango anthracnose photo gallery via:
http://www.growables.org/information/TropicalFruit/mangocommondiseases.htm

Links
Mango anthracnose, disease information:
https://apps.lucidcentral.org/pppw_v10/text/web_full/entities/mango_anthracnose_009.htm,
https://dpir.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/233591/604.pdf,
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/125876/mango-anthracnose-pf19.pdf,
http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/pd-48.pdf and via
http://www.horticultureworld.net/mango-india2.htm
Information on anthracnose, multiple hosts:
http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=25356,
http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7420.html and via
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/anthracnose
_C. gloeosporioides_ taxonomy & synonyms:
http://www.indexfungorum.org/names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=158410 and
http://www.speciesfungorum.org/GSD/GSDspecies.asp?RecordID=158410
_C. acutatum_ taxonomy & synonyms:
http://www.indexfungorum.org/names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=440865 and
http://www.speciesfungorum.org/GSD/GSDspecies.asp?RecordID=440865
Mango types and varieties:
http://www.horticultureworld.net/cultivars.htm
- Mod.DHA]

Mango
Anthracnose
Colletotrichum_gloeosporioides

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