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International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Mon 13 Nov 2017
Source: HortiDaily [edited]
< article/39132/Spain-New-Delhi- virus-reduces-and-delays- courgette-production>

The courgette [zucchini] season is developing in Almeria [Andalusia]
with a lower production that was marked by the impact of the New Delhi
virus. "The New Delhi virus has caused a delay in the harvest [and] is
limiting the courgette production. This year [2017], there will be a
lower production compared to previous years," says the Almeria-based
company Escobi [which] handles a volume of around 20 million kilos
[about 44 million lb] of courgettes. The demand for courgettes is on
the rise.
Communicated by:

[_Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus_ (ToLCNDV; genus _Begomovirus_) has
been reported to cause severe yield losses on tomato and watermelon
crops on the Indian subcontinent. It belongs to the tomato leaf curl
and yellow leaf curl clades of the genus. Known species in these
clades cause similar diseases on solanaceous and other crops and can
lead to considerable yield losses. Begomoviruses are transmitted by
different whitefly vectors (such as _Bemisia tabaci_ biotypes), and
many can also be transmitted by mechanical means and grafting, but
they are not seed transmitted.

Whiteflies in themselves are serious pests of many vegetable crops. If
virus sources are available locally, high vector numbers are often
reflected in high levels of the viral diseases they transmit.
Begomovirus control is particularly difficult in open field crops due
to the widespread presence and wide host range of whiteflies. Disease
management may include pathogen exclusion, vector control, as well as
elimination of possible pathogen and/or vector reservoir plants. In
some cases, crop cultivars with increased virus resistance are

ToLCNDV was limited to Asia until it was reported from Europe for the
1st time in 2013 on cucurbits in Spain (ProMED-mail post 20131223.2131729). It has since also been
reported from Italy (ProMED-mail post 20160327.4121164) and Tunisia and was
included in the EPPO alert list. ToLCNDV has a wider host range than
the related _Tomato yellow leaf curl virus_, which had previously been
present in the region.

The source of the Mediterranean incursion so far remains unknown.
Recent research (see link below) has shown that a novel recombinant
strain causes the severe damage to cucurbit crops in the region, but
poorly infects tomatoes. In Spain, a genetically uniform virus
population was identified which would be compatible with a recent
introduction. Major concerns in the region are a continued spread,
both geographically and in host range, and the potential of
coinfections with other begomoviruses already present which may lead
to synergistic enhancement of symptoms as well as emergence of further
strains due to additional recombination events.

< images/europe/political-map- of-Spain.gif>
< p/6672>
Provinces of Spain:
< content/uploads/2012/03/spain_ map3.gif>

ToLCNDV symptoms:
<http://cienciacebas.files. 1.jpg>
(zucchini) and
<http://cienciacebas.files. 2.jpg>
(cucumber and melon)
Photo gallery of symptoms of different begomoviruses:
<http://www.forestryimages. org/browse/TaxImages.cfm?fam= 651&genus=Begomovirus>

Information on ToLCNDV:
< QUARANTINE/Alert_List/viruses/ ToLCNDV.htm>
Information on leaf curl viral diseases on different hosts:
< diseases/viral/leaf_curl__ virus.html> and
< plants/health-pests-diseases/ a-z-significant/tomato-leaf- curl-virus>
Characterisation of recombinant ToLCNDV strain in the Mediterranean
< pmc/articles/PMC5127021/>
ToLCNDV taxonomy & current species list of the clade via:
< taxonomy/>
EPPO quarantine alert list:
< QUARANTINE/Alert_List/alert_ list.htm>
- Mod.DHA]

[See Also:
Vegetable viruses - Jamaica 20160421.4173419
Tomato leaf curl virus, eggplant - India: (TN) 20160415.4160915
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus, cucurbits - Italy: 1st rep (SC) 20160327.4121164
Vegetable viruses - Spain: (AN) alert 20151204.3839034
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus - Ghana: (TV) 20140717.2616753
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus - Spain: (AN) alert 20140321.2345942
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus, zucchini - Spain: (MU) 1st report 20131223.2131729
Yellow leaf curl & blights, tomato - Pakistan: (SD) 20130206.1531086
Vegetable viruses - Australia: (WA, QL) 20110314.0817
Tomato yellow leaf curl, cowpea - China: new host, (SH) 20110121.0244
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus - Spain: (AL) 20100923.3444
and older items in the archives]
.............................. mpp
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