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International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Tue 24 Apr 2018
Source: FreshPlaza [edited]
< article/193372/Mexico-Coconut- production-falls-by-99- procent-in-Veracruz>

Carmen Belen Lihaut Sequera, Coordinator of the National Council of
Producers in [Veracruz] State, said, "Coconut production has fallen by
99 per cent, due to the lethal yellowing disease and a complete lack
of replanting. [In] 2008 we started to see the disease, but since 2010
production began to disappear completely. We need to take care of the
problems in Veracruz."

During 2013-2014, producers had planted 1700 hectares of coconut
tolerant to lethal yellowing. More than 700 producers are affected by
this crisis across the entire state, she said. "The Creole variety of
the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico is dying, it is going to become
extinct, and replanting them is urgent."

She also said that the producers of coconut had been forced to bring
plants [that are] 85 per cent tolerant to the disease from certified
nurseries of [the state of] Colima themselves. She urged the
authorities to solve the problem of replanting the coconut trees.
Communicated by:

[Lethal yellowing (LY) diseases of coconut and other palms are caused
by phytoplasmas of the palm lethal yellowing (LY or 16SrIV;
_Candidatus_ Phytoplasma palmae strains) group. A number of LY strains
have been described from the Caribbean, Latin America, Africa and
southern Asia. LY has seriously jeopardised coconut industries in the
respective areas. LY-type diseases like Cape St Paul wilt (CSPW) in
Ghana, the "maladie de Kaincope" in Togo and Awka disease (lethal
decline, LD) in Nigeria, previously included in the 16SrIV group, have
been reclassified as the new group 16SrXXII (Nigerian coconut lethal
decline (LDN) group, _Ca._ P. palmicola strains; see link below).

Symptoms include premature nut drop, blackening of inflorescences,
yellowing of fronds and death of the palm usually within 4 to 6
months. The planthopper _Myndus crudus_ is suspected to be the vector
in the Americas, but different vectors may be involved in the spread
of LY strains elsewhere. Seed transmission of the pathogens cannot be
excluded and some weed species may serve as pathogen reservoirs. Jumps
of LY across apparently unaffected coconut populations have been
observed, possibly due to aerial spread of infectious vector insects
or human activities.

Commercial control of LY relies on resistant varieties, but an
unexplained resistance breakdown of some widely used hybrids
(ProMED-mail post 20070522.1643) is causing
great concern.

In Mexico, two 16SrIV strains were reported in the common palm species
_Sabal mexicana_ and _Pseudophoenix sargentii_ (ProMED-mail post 20110223.0592 and link below). A potential
role of _S. mexicana_ as a permanent source of LY phytoplasma inoculum
for coconut palms was suggested.

Mexico (with states):
< maps/americas/mexico_pol97.jpg >
Veracruz districts:
< mexico/maps/veracruz-map.jpg>

LY symptoms on coconut and other palms:
< edcenter/intropp/lessons/ prokaryotes/Article%20Images/ LethalYellowing03.jpg>,
< information/TropicalFruit/ images/ LethalYellowingFoliarSymptoms. jpg>,
< edcenter/intropp/lessons/ prokaryotes/Article%20Images/ LethalYellowing16.jpg>,
< images/768x512/1504005.jpg>,
< wp-content/uploads/2017/04/ Lethal-Yellowing.jpg
(leaf) and
< content/uploads/2015/06/ LethalYellowingCoconutSymptom. jpg>
_Myndus crudus_:
<http://www.forestryimages. org/images/768x512/0725079.jpg >

Lethal yellowing information:
< datasheet/38647>,
< edcenter/intropp/lessons/ prokaryotes/Pages/ LethalYellowing.aspx>,
< pmc/articles/PMC5080360/>,
<https://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1744- 7348.2011.00480.x>,
< pp146> and
< 3/develop/dev05.html>
LY strains and reservoirs in Mexico:
<https://apsjournals.apsnet. org/doi/10.1094/PDIS-02-10- 0150>
16SrIV LY phytoplasma group taxonomy and species list:
< taxonomy/85624>
16SrXXII classification of some LY-type diseases:
< content/57/8/1855.full>
16SrXXII LDN phytoplasma group taxonomy:
< taxonomy/590462>
Phytoplasma resource centre:
 - Mod.DHA

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
< p/14>.]

[See Also:
Coconut wilt-related phytoplasma, cassava - Cote d'Ivoire: 1st rep
(LN) 20170713.5168553
Kerala wilt, coconut palm - India: (KL) susp 20150902.3614963
Lethal yellowing, coconut palm - Mozambique: new phytoplasma 20140621.2556066
Lethal yellowing & bud rot, coconut palm - St Kitts & Nevis 20140505.2449724
Cape St Paul wilt, coconut palm - Cote d'Ivoire: 1st rep 20130817.1885487
Phytoplasma diseases, coconut palm - Cote d'Ivoire, Papua New Guinea 20130614.1770603
Lethal yellowing, coconut palm - Antigua 20120801.1223614
Bogia syndrome, coconut - Papua New Guinea: (MD) quarantine 20120405.1090762
Lethal yellowing, coconut palm - Papua NG, Mexico: new phytoplasmas 20110223.0592
Lethal yellowing, coconut palm - Mozambique: spread, (IN) 20101118.4185
Red ring & lethal yellows, coconut - Americas, Africa 20100910.3262
Phytoplasmas, coconut palm - Sri Lanka, Mozambique: update 20100430.1402
and additional items on LY diseases in the archives]
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