Sydney NSW, Australia
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2022-08-19T23:13:00.0000000Z
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PANICLE BLIGHT, RICE - MALAYSIA: (PENANG)

ProMED|
http://www.promedmail.org

Source: The Star [summ. Mod.DHA, edited]
https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2022/08/10/penang-paddy-farmers-suffer-losses-due-to-bacterial-blight

More than 50 rice farmers in parts of Penang have suffered losses after more than 121 ha [about 300 acres] of fields produced half-filled or empty grain following an attack of bacterial panicle blight (BPB).

One farmer reports that most of his plants were attacked by BPB. He is concerned to see the condition of paddy fields in the area and hopes that the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industries will help the farmers.

Another farmer claims that this 2022 season he only managed to harvest 5 tonnes of rice from his 2 ha [about 5 acres] of land, compared with the usual 15 to 16 tonnes. He says that this was the 1st time his paddy was attacked by the disease.
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Communicated by:
ProMED

[_Burkholderia glumae_ causes bacterial panicle blight (BPB) and seedling rot of rice, as well as bacterial wilts in a number of other field crops. In some areas, _B. gladioli_ and _ B. plantarii_ have also been detected in BPB affected rice, but are generally considered minor contributors. BPB has been known in Japan since 1955 and has more recently also been reported in other rice-producing countries around the world. Outbreaks with severe crop losses have occurred at different locations. BPB is considered an emerging disease of the crop.

Symptoms may include sheath, seedling, and grain rots, as well as abortion of florets resulting in greatly reduced grain filling and potential yield losses of up to 40 percent. Infection of the host can occur at any stage in the growth cycle. Disease development is favoured by warm temperatures.

The pathogen is carried on seeds and is often present in commercial rice seed. Despite its economic importance, virulence mechanisms of _B. glumae_ are still poorly understood. Disease management may include cultural methods or some antibiotic seed treatments, however, really effective control methods are currently still not available. No complete resistance has been identified in rice cultivars anywhere in the world, but varieties with reduced sensitivity exist and resistance breeding programmes are in progress.

Maps
Malaysia:
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/malaysia.jpg,
https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8705110,16684, and
https://ontheworldmap.com/malaysia/malaysia-states-map.jpg (states)

Pictures
Panicle blight symptoms:
https://lariceman.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/newpath-inj-g-fontenot-7-10-6.jpg,
http://www.lsuagcenter.com/topics/crops/rice/diseases/photos/bacterial-panicle-blight/bpb13,
https://image.slidesharecdn.com/002-controloptionsforricebacterialpanicleblightdongroth-100929083826-phpapp02/95/002-control-options-for-rice-bacterial-panicle-blight-don-groth-4-728.jpg, and
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_uvBivNzH_8Q/TE2XkCtPqWI/AAAAAAAAAFs/toDYA3tEJAQ/w1200-h630-p-k-no-nu/BPB1.jpg
BPB affected rice seeds:
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lindsay_Triplett/publication/258826985/figure/fig1/AS:297523831951360@1447946617075/Symptoms-of-bacterial-panicle-blight-on-rice-seed-under-greenhouse-conditions-evaluated.png
Effect of BPB on different rice cultivars:
http://www.lsuagcenter.com/NR/rdonlyres/8F90178B-B2EB-46D1-BD3E-A1B507E97A2B/39327/rushfigure4_w200.jpg and
https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSu0Qv8IdGGLVGaivEKBahw-ro1b2SHVu7_cGCxR-C4Lohh8e_7EA
BPB photo galleries:
http://www.ipmimages.org/browse/subimages.cfm?area=125&sub=56017 and
http://www.lsuagcenter.com/topics/crops/rice/diseases/photos/bacterial-panicle-blight

Links
Information on panicle blight of rice:
https://www.croplifela.org/en/diseases/bacterial-panicle-blight,
http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Panicle-blight-CP-2008.pdf,
http://www.lsuagcenter.com/portals/communications/publications/agmag/archive/2011/summer/bacterial-panicle-blight-an-emerging-rice-disease,
http://www.lsuagcenter.com/NR/rdonlyres/676D0BE2-0CD8-4EE0-B8FA-331C11D92577/74885/pub3106BacterialPanicleBlightHIGHRES.pdf,
https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-93-9-0896, and
http://www.slideshare.net/CIAT/poster-impresion-1-compatibility-mode
BPB disease cycle:
https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/cms/10.1094/PHYTO-09-20-0401-RVW/asset/images/medium/phyto-09-20-0401-rvwf2.gif
BPB reviews:
https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-09-20-0401-RVW and
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsci.2016.01.007
_B. glumae_ taxonomy:
http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/337
Genus _Burkholderia_ taxonomy and species list:
http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/32008
- Mod.DHA]

Rice
Malaysia
Bacterial_panicle_blight

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