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2021-07-10T21:23:00.0000000Z
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ANTHRACNOSE, MANGO - INDIA: (KARNATAKA)

ProMED
http://www.promedmail.org

ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
http://www.isid.org
Source: The New Indian Express, Express News Service [abridged, edited]
https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/karnataka/2021/jun/26/kolar-mangoes-dumped-by-the-roadside-after-steep-fall-in-price-2321656.html
With a steep fall in prices of mangoes, growers are dumping them by the roadside in Kolar district. Adding to farmers' woes, the Totapuri variety has been attacked by a fungal disease -- anthracnose. Growers are demanding compensation from the government.
[Byline: V Velayudham]
--
[Anthracnose is considered the most important disease of mango. It is caused by the fungi _Colletotrichum gloeosporioides_ or _C. acutatum_. Symptoms may include flower blight; pre- and post-harvest fruit rot; twig dieback; leaf spots. Anthracnose can completely destroy the flowers and cause extensive dead areas on leaves, greatly reducing yield. The fungi apparently invade the skin of young fruit and remain in a latent state until fruit ripening begins. Ripe fruit, either before or after picking, can then develop prominent dark-brown to black spots. Fruit infection commonly occurs and can result in extensive rotting.

The fungi have a long saprophytic survival ability on dead twigs and fallen leaves. These are the main sources of inoculum. Spread may occur with infected plant material, by mechanical means (including insect activities), and water splash. The disease is favoured by humid conditions during the period from the onset of flowering until fruit are about half size. Control of anthracnose in mango usually centres on a diligent fungicide programme; it may also include phytosanitation to reduce inoculum, as well as cultural measures to reduce moisture in the orchard. More Indo-Chinese/Philippine type mango varieties show levels of resistance to anthracnose than Indian type varieties.

Fungi in the genus _Colletotrichum_ have been reported to cause anthracnose-like symptoms on many crops.

Maps
India (with states):
https://www.worldometers.info/img/maps/india_physical_map.gif and
http://healthmap.org/promed/p/6937
Karnataka districts:
https://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/karnataka/Karnataka.jpg

Pictures
Mango anthracnose symptoms on
- fruit:
https://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/uhmg/FAQ/FAQ-img/anthracnose-mango-WN.jpg,
http://barmac.com.au/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2016/01/Anthracnose-Mango.jpg,
http://pics.davesgarden.com/pics/2003/08/20/Thaumaturgist/256453.jpg,
https://c1.staticflickr.com/3/2181/13021759075_ecb5be0757_b.jpg and
http://docsdrive.com/images/ansinet/ppj/2014/fig2-2k14-268-277.jpg (scale of disease severity)
- leaves, flowers, inflorescence:
https://c1.staticflickr.com/9/8221/8291015097_2aedd367af_b.jpg,
https://c1.staticflickr.com/6/5540/9540312937_b354a55b92_b.jpg,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/55/Mango_anthracnose_1a.jpg and
http://tinyurl.com/y7c2mq37
Mango anthracnose photo gallery via:
http://www.growables.org/information/TropicalFruit/mangocommondiseases.htm

Links
Additional news stories:
https://www.freshplaza.com/article/9334749/karnataka-farmers-dump-tons-of-mangoes-on-the-roadside/,
https://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/in-other-news/270621/karnataka-farmers-dump-tonnes-of-mangoes-on-roadside-as-prices-fall.html, and
https://thelogicalindian.com/trending/as-prices-decline-karnataka-farmers-dump-tonnes-of-mangoes-on-roadside-29202
Mango anthracnose, disease information:
https://dpir.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/233591/604.pdf,
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/125876/mango-anthracnose-pf19.pdf,
http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/pd-48.pdf and via
http://www.horticultureworld.net/mango-india2.htm
Information on anthracnose, multiple hosts:
http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=25356,
http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7420.html, and via
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/anthracnose
_C. gloeosporioides_ taxonomy and synonyms:
http://www.indexfungorum.org/names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=158410 and
http://www.speciesfungorum.org/GSD/GSDspecies.asp?RecordID=158410
_C. acutatum_ taxonomy:
http://www.indexfungorum.org/names/NamesRecord.asp?RecordID=440865
Mango types and varieties:
http://www.horticultureworld.net/cultivars.htm
- Mod.DHA]

Mango
Anthracnose

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